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Luna 1
LUNA 1, also known as MECHTA (Russian : Мечта, lit. : Dream), E-1 NO.4 and First Lunar Rover , was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon
Moon
, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit . Intended as an impactor, Luna 1
Luna 1
was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon, in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit . While traveling through the outer Van Allen radiation belt
Van Allen radiation belt
, the spacecraft's scintillator made observations indicating that a small number of high energy particles exist in the outer belt. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space . The Moon
Moon
was found to have no detectable magnetic field
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Orbital Elements
ORBITAL ELEMENTS are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit . In celestial mechanics these elements are generally considered in classical two-body systems , where a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is used (derived from Newton\'s laws of motion and Newton\'s law of universal gravitation ). There are many different ways to mathematically describe the same orbit, but certain schemes, each consisting of a set of six parameters, are commonly used in astronomy and orbital mechanics . A real orbit (and its elements) changes over time due to gravitational perturbations by other objects and the effects of relativity . A Keplerian orbit is merely an idealized, mathematical approximation at a particular time
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Plasma (physics)
PLASMA (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πλάσμα, meaning "moldable substance" ) is a state of matter resembling an ionised gas , though partially ionised plasmas also exist. This ionization makes the plasma affected by electromagnetic fields , which heavily influence how the plasma behaves. It is one of the four fundamental states of matter , and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir
Irving Langmuir
in the 1920s. Unlike the other three states of solid , liquid , and gas , plasma does not freely exist on the Earth under normal surface conditions, and can only be artificially generated by heating neutral gases or by subjecting that gas to a strong electromagnetic field . Plasma and ionised gases have unique properties and display behaviors unlike those of the other states, and the transition between them is mostly a matter of nomenclature and subject to interpretation
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Radio Equipment
Radio-frequency engineer * Outside Broadcast
Broadcast
Radio-frequency engineer Profession
Profession
DESCRIPTION COMPETENCIES Technical knowledge, Management skills, Professionalism EDUCATION REQUIRED Mathematics
Mathematics
, Physics
Physics
, Electronics
Electronics
, Information technology
Information technology
Fields of employment Radio
Radio
, Television
Television
, Military
Military
RELATED JOBS Technologist , Broadcast engineer , Engineering technician , Technical Operator RADIO-FREQUENCY ENGINEERING is a subset of electrical engineering that deals with devices that are designed to operate in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. These devices operate within the range of about 3 kHz up to 300 GHz
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Magnetic Field
A MAGNETIC FIELD is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials . The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a _direction_ and a _magnitude_ (or strength); as such it is represented by a vector field . The term is used for two distinct but closely related fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (symbol: A⋅m−1 or A/m) in the SI . B is measured in teslas (symbol: T) and newtons per meter per ampere (symbol: N⋅m−1⋅A−1 or N/(m⋅A)) in the SI . B is most commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges. Magnetic fields can be produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property , their spin
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Sodium
SODIUM is a chemical element with symbol NA (from Latin _natrium_) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal . Sodium is an alkali metal , being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation . Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth\'s minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide
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Academy Of Sciences Of The USSR
The RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (RAS; Russian : Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia
Russia
; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals. Headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia
Russia
. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions. Near the central academy building there is a monument to Yuri Gagarin in the square bearing his name. As of November 2017, the Academy included 1008 institutions and other units ; totally about 125,000 people were employed of which 47,000 are scientific researchers
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Scintillator
A SCINTILLATOR is a material that exhibits scintillation — the property of luminescence , when excited by ionizing radiation . Luminescent materials, when struck by an incoming particle, absorb its energy and scintillate, (i.e. re-emit the absorbed energy in the form of light). Sometimes, the excited state is metastable , so the relaxation back down from the excited state to lower states is delayed (necessitating anywhere from a few nanoseconds to hours depending on the material): the process then corresponds to either one of two phenomena, depending on the type of transition and hence the wavelength of the emitted optical photon: delayed fluorescence or phosphorescence , also called after-glow
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Subatomic Particle
In the physical sciences , SUBATOMIC PARTICLES are particles much smaller than atoms . There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles , which according to current theories are not made of other particles; and composite particles. Particle
Particle
physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact . In particle physics, the concept of a particle is one of several concepts inherited from classical physics . But it also reflects the modern understanding that at the quantum scale matter and energy behave very differently from what much of everyday experience would lead us to expect. The idea of a particle underwent serious rethinking when experiments showed that light could behave like a stream of particles (called photons ) as well as exhibit wave-like properties
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Tracking Transmitter
A TRACKING TRANSMITTER broadcasts a radio signal which can be detected by a directional antenna (typically a Radio
Radio
Direction Finder .) By rotating the antenna one can determine the direction the signal lies in and of course whatever it may be attached to. The EPIRB
EPIRB
is an example of a similar device. It is commonly used in model rocketry and remote control aircraft to locate lost equipment
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Telemetry
TELEMETRY is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring. The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand . Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms (e.g., using radio , ultrasonic, or infrared systems), it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone or computer network , optical link or other wired communications like power line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low cost and ubiquity of GSM
GSM
networks by using SMS
SMS
to receive and transmit telemetry data. A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure any quantity
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Ground Control System
A GROUND SEGMENT consists of all the ground-based control elements of a spacecraft system , as opposed to the space segment and user segment. :1 The ground segment serves to enable control of a spacecraft, and distribution of payload data and telemetry among interested parties on the ground
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Kislovodsk
KISLOVODSK (Russian : Кислово́дск, lit. sour waters) is a spa city in Stavropol Krai , Russia
Russia
, in the North Caucasus region of Russia
Russia
which is located between the Black and Caspian Seas . Population: 128,553 (2010 Census ); 129,788 (2002 Census ); 114,414 (1989 Census ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administrative and municipal status * 3 Notable people * 4 In literature * 5 Twin towns and sister cities * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Sources * 7 External links HISTORYIn 1803 Tsar Alexander I of Russia
Russia
ordered the construction of the military station which became Kislovodsk. The site took its name from the many mineral springs around the city. The settlement gained town status in 1903
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Soviet Coat Of Arms
The STATE EMBLEM OF THE SOVIET UNION (Russian : Государственный герб Советского Союза, Gosudarstvenny gerb Sovyetskovo Soyuza ) was adopted in 1923 and was used until the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. Although it technically is an emblem rather than a coat of arms, since it does not follow traditional heraldic rules, in Russian it is called герб (gerb), the word used for a traditional coat of arms. It was the first state insignia created in the style known as socialist heraldry , a style also seen in e.g. the emblem of the People\'s Republic of China
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Micrometeorite
A MICROMETEORITE is an extraterrestrial particle, ranging in size from 50 µm to 2 mm , usually found on the Earth\'s surface, and they are essentially micrometeoroids which have survived entry through the Earth\'s atmosphere . Micrometeorites differ from meteorites in being of smaller sizes, more plentiful, different in composition and are a subset of cosmic dust,