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Luna 1
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Russian: Мечта, lit.: Dream),[1] E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover ,[2] was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit. Intended as an impactor, Luna 1
Luna 1
was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme
Luna programme
in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon, in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit. While traveling through the outer Van Allen radiation belt, the spacecraft's scintillator made observations indicating that a small number of high energy particles exist in the outer belt. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space. The Moon
Moon
was found to have no detectable magnetic field
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Orbital Elements
Orbital elements
Orbital elements
are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit. In celestial mechanics these elements are generally considered in classical two-body systems, where a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is used. There are many different ways to mathematically describe the same orbit, but certain schemes, each consisting of a set of six parameters, are commonly used in astronomy and orbital mechanics. A real orbit (and its elements) changes over time due to gravitational perturbations by other objects and the effects of relativity
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Plasma (physics)
Plasma (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πλάσμα​, meaning 'moldable substance'[1]) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir[2] in the 1920s.[3]. Unlike the other three states, solid, liquid, and gas, plasma does not exist freely on the Earth's surface under normal conditions
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Radio Equipment
Radio-frequency engineerOutside Broadcast Radio-frequency engineerProfessionDescriptionCompetencies Technical knowledge, Management skills, ProfessionalismEducation requiredMathematics, Physics, Electronics, Information technologyFields of employmentRadio, Television, MilitaryRelated jobsTechnologist, Broadcast engineer, Engineering technician, Technical OperatorRadio-frequency engineering is a subset of electrical engineering that deals with devices that are designed to operate in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum
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Tracking Transmitter
A Tracking transmitter broadcasts a radio signal which can be detected by a directional antenna (typically a Radio Direction Finder.) By rotating the antenna one can determine the direction the signal lies in and of course whatever it may be attached to
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Telemetry
Telemetry
Telemetry
is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.[1] The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand.[2] Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms (e.g., using radio, ultrasonic, or infrared systems), it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like power line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low cost and ubiquity of GSM
GSM
networks by using SMS
SMS
to receive and transmit telemetry data. A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure any quantity
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Geiger Counter
The Geiger counter
Geiger counter
is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry. It detects ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays using the ionization effect produced in a Geiger–Müller tube; which gives its name to the instrument.[1] In wide and prominent use as a hand-held radiation survey instrument, it is perhaps one of the world's best-known radiation detection instruments. The original detection principle was discovered in 1908 at the Cavendish laboratory, but it was not until the development of the Geiger-Müller tube in 1928 that the Geiger-Müller counter became a practical instrument. Since then it has been very popular due to its robust sensing element and relatively low cost
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Scintillation Counter
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses. It consists of a scintillator which generates photons in response to incident radiation, a sensitive photomultiplier tube (PMT) which converts the light to an electrical signal and electronics to process this signal. Scintillation counters are widely used in radiation protection, assay of radioactive materials and physics research because they can be made inexpensively yet with good quantum efficiency, and can measure both the intensity and the energy of incident radiation.Contents1 History 2 Operation 3 Detection materials 4 Detector efficiencies4.1 Gamma 4.2 Neutron5 Applications5.1 Guidance on application use6
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Micrometeorite
A micrometeorite is essentially a micrometeoroid that has survived entry through Earth's atmosphere. The size of such a particle ranges from 50 µm to 2 mm. Usually found on Earth's surface, micrometeorites differ from meteorites in that they are smaller in size, more abundant, and different in composition. They are a subset of cosmic dust, which also includes the smaller interplanetary dust particles (IDPs).[1] Micrometeorites enter Earth's atmosphere at high velocities (at least 11 km/s) and undergo heating through atmospheric friction and compression
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Soviet Coat Of Arms
The State Emblem of the Soviet Union (Russian: Госуда́рственный герб Сове́тского Сою́за, tr. Gosudárstvenny gerb Sovétskogo Soyúza, IPA: [ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪnːɨj ɡʲerp sɐvʲˈetskəvə sɐˈjuzə][1]) was adopted in 1923 and was used until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991
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Sodium
Sodium
Sodium
is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium
Sodium
is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged ion—the Na+ cation. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium
Sodium
is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl)
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Subatomic Particle
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.[1] There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles, which according to current theories are not made of other particles; and composite particles.[2] Particle physics
Particle physics
and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact.[3] In particle physics, the concept of a particle is one of several concepts inherited from classical physics. But it also reflects the modern understanding that at the quantum scale matter and energy behave very differently from what much of everyday experience would lead us to expect. The idea of a particle underwent serious rethinking when experiments showed that light could behave like a stream of particles (called photons) as well as exhibiting wave-like properties
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Comet
A comet is an icy small Solar System
Solar System
body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing. This produces a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet
Comet
nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens of kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles. The coma may be up to 15 times the Earth's diameter, while the tail may stretch one astronomical unit. If sufficiently bright, a comet may be seen from the Earth
Earth
without the aid of a telescope and may subtend an arc of 30° (60 Moons) across the sky
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Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean
Ocean
is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).[1] It is bounded by Asia
Asia
on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the
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Academy Of Sciences Of The USSR
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization[2] chartered by the Government of Russia. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions
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