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Luis Walter Alvarez
Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
(June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1968. The American Journal of Physics
Physics
commented, "Luis Alvarez was one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century."[1] After receiving his PhD
PhD
from the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 1936, Alvarez went to work for Ernest Lawrence
Ernest Lawrence
at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California
University of California
in Berkeley. Alvarez devised a set of experiments to observe K-electron capture in radioactive nuclei, predicted by the beta decay theory but never before observed. He produced tritium using the cyclotron and measured its lifetime
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Resonance (particle Physics)
In particle physics, a resonance is the peak located around a certain energy found in differential cross sections of scattering experiments. These peaks are associated with subatomic particles, which include a variety of bosons, quarks and hadrons (such as nucleons, delta baryons or upsilon mesons) and their excitations
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American Journal Of Physics
The American Journal of Physics
American Journal of Physics
is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics. The editor is Richard H. Price of the University of Utah.[1][2][3][4][5]Contents1 Aims and scope 2 History 3 Abstracting and indexing 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksAims and scope[edit] The focus of this journal is undergraduate and graduate level physics. The intended audience is college and university physics teachers and students. Coverage includes current research in physics, instructional laboratory equipment, laboratory demonstrations, teaching methodologies, lists of resources, and book reviews. In addition, historical, philosophical and cultural aspects of physics are also covered.[3] History[edit] The former title of this journal was American Physics Teacher (vol. 1, February 1933) (ISSN 0096-0322)
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Bubble Chamber
A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it. It was invented in 1952 by Donald A. Glaser,[1] for which he was awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics.[2] Supposedly, Glaser was inspired by the bubbles in a glass of beer; however, in a 2006 talk, he refuted this story, although saying that while beer was not the inspiration for the bubble chamber, he did experiments using beer to fill early prototypes.[3] Cloud chambers work on the same principles as bubble chambers, but are based on supersaturated vapor rather than superheated liquid
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Liquid Hydrogen
Liquid hydrogen
Liquid hydrogen
(LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is found naturally in the molecular H2 form. To exist as a liquid, H2 must be cooled below hydrogen's critical point of 33 K. However, for hydrogen to be in a fully liquid state without boiling at atmospheric pressure, it needs to be cooled to 20.28 K[3] (−423.17 °F/−252.87 °C).[4][5] One common method of obtaining liquid hydrogen involves a compressor resembling a jet engine in both appearance and principle. Liquid hydrogen is typically used as a concentrated form of hydrogen storage. As in any gas, storing it as liquid takes less space than storing it as a gas at normal temperature and pressure. However, the liquid density is very low compared to other common fuels
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B-29 Superfortress
The Boeing
Boeing
B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II
World War II
and the Korean War. It was one of the largest aircraft operational during World War II
World War II
and featured state-of-the-art technology. Including design and production, at over $3 billion it was the single most expensive weapons project undertaken by the United States
United States
in World War II, exceeding the cost of the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
by between $1 and 1.7 billion.[4][5] Innovations introduced included a pressurized cabin, dual-wheeled, tricycle landing gear, and an analog computer-controlled fire-control system that directed four remote machine gun turrets that could be operated by a single gunner and a fire-control officer
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Explosive Lens
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized shaped charge. In general, it is a device composed of several explosive charges. These charges are arranged and formed with the intent to control the shape of the detonation wave passing through them. The explosive lens is conceptually similar to an optical lens, which focuses light waves. The charges that make up the explosive lens are chosen to have different rates of detonation. In order to convert a spherically expanding wavefront into a spherically converging one using only a single boundary between the constituent explosives, the boundary shape must be a paraboloid; similarly, to convert a spherically diverging front into a flat one, the boundary shape must be a hyperboloid, and so on
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Nuclear Reactor
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear marine propulsion. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), which in turn runs through steam turbines. These either drive a ship's propellers or turn electrical generators' shafts. Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for production of weapons-grade plutonium
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Ground Controlled Approach
In aviation a ground-controlled approach (GCA), is a type of service provided by air-traffic controllers whereby they guide aircraft to a safe landing, including in adverse weather conditions, based on primary radar images. Most commonly a GCA uses information from either a Precision Approach Radar
Precision Approach Radar
(PAR, for precision approaches with vertical, glidepath guidance) or an Airport Surveillance Radar
Airport Surveillance Radar
(ASR, providing a non-precision Surveillance radar approach with no glidepath guidance). The term GCA may refer to any type of ground radar guided approach such as a PAR, PAR without glideslope or ASR.[1] When both vertical and horizontal guidance from the PAR is given, the approach is termed a precision approach
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Berlin Airlift
The Berlin
Berlin
Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin
Berlin
under Western control
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Microwave
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (100 cm) and 300 GHz (0.1 cm).[1][2][3][4][5] Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter wave) bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz (wavelengths between 300 and 3 mm).[2] In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations. The prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. It indicates that microwaves are "small", compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology, in that they have shorter wavelengths
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Transponder
In telecommunication, a transponder can be one of two types of devices. In air navigation or radio frequency identification, a flight transponder is an automated transceiver in an aircraft that emits a coded identifying signal in response to an interrogating received signal. In a communications satellite, a satellite transponder receives signals over a range of uplink frequencies, usually from a satellite ground station
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Identification Friend Or Foe
Identification, friend or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for command and control. It enables military and civilian air traffic control interrogation systems to identify aircraft, vehicles or forces as friendly and to determine their bearing and range from the interrogator. IFF may be used by both military and civilian aircraft. IFF was first developed during the Second World War, with the arrival of radar, and several infamous friendly fire incidents. Despite the name, IFF can only positively identify friendly targets, not hostile ones.[1][2][3][4] If an IFF interrogation receives no reply or an invalid reply, the object cannot be identified as friendly, but is not positively identified as foe
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Radar
Radar
Radar
is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio
Radio
waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar
Radar
was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Radiation Laboratory (MIT)
The Radiation Laboratory, commonly called the Rad Lab, was a microwave and radar research laboratory located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
(US). It was first created in October 1940 and operated until 31 December 1945 when its functions were dispersed to industry, other departments within MIT, and in 1951, the newly formed MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The use of microwaves for various radio and radar uses was highly desired before the war, but existing microwave devices like the klystron were far too low powered to be useful. Alfred Lee Loomis, a millionaire and physicist who headed his own private laboratory, organized the Microwave
Microwave
Committee to consider these devices and look for improvements
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