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Lower Middle Class
In developed nations across the world, the lower middle class is a sub-division of the greater middle class. Universally the term refers to the group of middle class households or individuals who have not attained the status of the upper middle class associated with the higher realms of the middle class, hence the name.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]Contents1 United States1.1 Social class
Social class
in the US at a glance 1.2 Usage in popular culture2 See also 3 ReferencesUnited States Main article: American middle class In American society, the middle class may be divided into two or three sub-groups. When divided into two parts, the lower middle class, also sometimes simply referred to as "middle class", consists of roughly one third of households, roughly twice as large as the upper middle or managerial class. Common occupation fields are semi-professionals, such as lower-level managers, small business owners and skilled craftsmen
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Developed Nation
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living.[1] Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialization, or undeveloped countries, which are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian
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Arno J. Mayer
Arno Joseph Mayer (born June 19, 1926) is a Luxembourg-born American historian who specializes in modern Europe, diplomatic history, and the Holocaust, and is currently Dayton-Stockton Professor of History, Emeritus, at Princeton University.Contents1 Early life and academic career 2 Views 3 Critical responses to Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? 4 Since 2001 5 Partial publications list5.1 Books 5.2 Chapters and journal articles6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 Bibliography7 Further reading 8 External linksEarly life and academic career[edit] Mayer was born in 1926 into a Jewish family that fled to the United States during the Nazi invasion of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
in May 1940. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1944; that same year he was drafted into the United States Army
United States Army
and served as an intelligence officer. He eventually became a morale officer for high-ranking German prisoners of war
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and other primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013[update], more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some of the site's public domain and open access content is available at no cost to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $86 million in 2015.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Publications Of The Modern Language Association
The Modern Language
Language
Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language
Language
Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States
United States
for scholars of language and literature
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Pine Forge Press
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California. It publishes more than 1,000 journals, more than 800 books a year,[1] reference works and electronic products covering business, humanities, social sciences, science, technology and medicine
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Karl Marx
Karl Marx[note 1] (German: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks];[14][15] 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Germany, Marx studied law and philosophy at university. He married Jenny von Westphalen
Jenny von Westphalen
in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London
London
for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital
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Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(/ˈɛŋɡəlz/,[2][3] /ˈɛŋəlz/;[3] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈɛŋəls], sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.[4] His father was an owner of a large textile factory at Manchester, England. Engels founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and in 1845 published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in Manchester. In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
with Marx
Marx
and also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works. Later, Engels supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write Das Kapital
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Progress Publishers
Progress Publishers
Progress Publishers
was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931. It was noted for its English-language editions of books on Marxism–Leninism. Progress Publishers
Progress Publishers
were particularly also known for their "Short History of USSR" and ABC series (ABC of Party, ABC of Socialism, ABC of Dialectical Materialism, etc.). They also published many scientific books, books on arts, political books, classic books, children's literature, novels and short fiction, books in source languages for people studying foreign languages, guidebooks and photographic albums. They also published, in 1979, Marx and Engels on the United States, a compilation drawn from letters, articles, and various other works. One of the common features of all Progress books was their "request to reader" to send an opinion and suggestions on the book. It reads:“ REQUEST TO READERS
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The Journal Of Modern History
The Journal of Modern History
History
is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press
University of Chicago Press
in cooperation with the Modern European History
History
Section of the American Historical Association.[1] The journal covers events from approximately 1500 to the present, with a geographical scope extending from the United Kingdom through the European continent, including Russia and the Balkans.Contents1 Editors and editorial board 2 Format and contents 3 The Chester Penn Higby Prize 4 References 5 External linksEditors and editorial board[edit] The Journal of Modern History
History
is coedited by John W. Boyer and Jan E. Goldstein (University of Chicago)
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Journal Of British Studies
The publication of the North American Conference on British Studies, The Journal of British Studies is an academic journal aimed at scholars of British culture
British culture
from the Middle Ages through the present. The journal was co-founded in 1961 by George Cooper. JBS presents scholarly articles and book reviews from renowned international authors who share their ideas on British society, politics, law, economics, and the arts. Until 2005 it covered subjects from the medieval period to the present, while Albion (another journal published by the NACBS) covered all periods of British history. Albion was merged into the JBS as of vol. 44 in 2005. Until October 2012 the journal was published by University of Chicago Press
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Pearson PLC
Pearson plc
Pearson plc
is a British multinational publishing and education company headquartered in London. It was founded as a construction business in the 1840s. It shut down its construction activities in the 1920s and switched to publishing. It is the largest education company and the largest book publisher in the world.[2][3] Pearson has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index
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Jon Wiener
Jon Wiener
Jon Wiener
(born May 16, 1944) is an American historian and journalist based in Los Angeles.[2] He is notable for waging a successful 25-year[4] legal battle to win the release of the FBI's files on John Lennon.[2] Wiener played a key role in efforts to expose the surveillance as well as the behind-the-scenes battling between the government and the former Beatle,[5] and is a recognized expert on the FBI-versus-Lennon controversy.[6] A professor emeritus of United States history at the University of California, Irvine,[7] he is also a contributing editor to the left-leaning political weekly magazine T
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Marxian Class Theory
In Marxism, Marxian class theory
Marxian class theory
asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position.[1] A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests.[2] Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Mudsill Theory
Mudsill
Mudsill
theory is a sociological term indicating the proposition that there must be, and always has been, a lower class for the upper classes to rest upon. The term derives from a mudsill, the lowest threshold that supports the foundation for a building. The theory was first used by South Carolina Senator/Governor James Henry Hammond, a wealthy southern plantation owner, in a Senate speech on March 4, 1858,[1] to justify what he saw as the willingness of the lower classes and the duty of non-whites to perform menial work which enabled the higher classes to move civilization forward
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Three-component Theory Of Stratification
The three-component theory of stratification, more widely known as Weberian stratification or the three class system, was developed by German sociologist Max Weber
Max Weber
with class, status and power as distinct ideal types. Weber developed a multidimensional approach to social stratification that reflects the interplay among wealth, prestige and power.Weber argued that power can take a variety of forms. A person's power can be shown in the social order through their status, in the economic order through their class, and in the political order through their party
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