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Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
Egypt
(Arabic: مصر السفلى‎ Miṣr as-Suflā) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile
Nile
Delta, between Upper Egypt
Egypt
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
— from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt 4 List of nomes 5 See also 6 ReferencesGeography[edit] In ancient times, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(N.H. 5.11) said that upon reaching the delta the Nile
Nile
split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic
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Papyrus
Papyrus
Papyrus
/pəˈpaɪrəs/ is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge.[1] Papyrus (plural: papyri) can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book.An official letter on a papyrus of the 3rd century BCE Papyrus
Papyrus
is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First Dynasty), as the papyrus plant was once abundant across the Nile Delta. It was also used throughout the Mediterranean region and in the Kingdom of Kush
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List Of Ancient Egyptian Dynasties
In Ancient Egyptian history, dynasties are series of rulers sharing a common origin. They are usually, but not always, of the same family.[note 1] Ancient Egypt's historical period is traditionally divided into thirty-one pharaonic dynasties. The first thirty divisions are due to the 3rd century BC Egyptian priest Manetho, and appeared in his now-lost work Aegyptiaca, which was perhaps written for the Greek-speaking Ptolemaic Egyptian ruler of the time. The name of the short-lived thirty-first dynasty is a later coining. While widely used and useful, the system does have its shortcomings. Some dynasties only ruled part of Egypt and existed concurrently with other dynasties based in other cities. The Seventh might not have existed at all, the Tenth seems to be a continuation of the Ninth, and there might have been one or several Upper Egyptian Dynasties before the First Dynasty. This page lists articles on dynasties of Ancient Egypt
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Nile River
The Nile
Nile
(Arabic: النيل‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר‬, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‬, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world,[1] though some sources cite the Amazon River
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Eleventh Dynasty Of Egypt
The Eleventh Dynasty
Dynasty
of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty
Dynasty
XI) is a well attested group of rulers. Its earlier members before Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
Mentuhotep II
are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, whereas the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom
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Seventh Dynasty Of Egypt
The Seventh Dynasty of Egypt would mark the beginning of the First Intermediate Period in the early 22nd century BC. Almost nothing is known of this dynasty and Egyptologists often consider it fictitious.[1] In the 3rd century BC, the Egyptian priest Manetho wrote Aegyptiaca, a now lost work on the history of Egypt, in which he coined the names of the first thirty Egyptian Dynasties. He describes a period after the end of the Sixth Dynasty, in which 70 kings would have ruled over a period of 70 days, a period that he calls the Seventh Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty, is not quite as obscure. Its kings are named in other sources, namely in the Abydos King List. References[edit]^ Wilkinson, Toby (2010). "Timeline". The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. New York: Random House. p. xiii. ISBN 9781408810026. The system of dynasties devised in the third century B.C
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Damietta
Damietta (Arabic: دمياط‎ Dumyāṭ , IPA: [domˈjɑːtˤ]; Coptic: ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ) also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see
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River
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features,[1] although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek,[2] but not always: the language is vague.[3] Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Nile
The Nile
Nile
(Arabic: النيل‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר‬, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‬, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world,[1] though some sources cite the Amazon River
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Rosetta
Coordinates: 31°24′N 30°25′E / 31.400°N 30.417°E / 31.400; 30.417Rosetta ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ رشيد RashidRosettaRosettaLocation in EgyptCoordinates: 31°24′16″N 30°24′59″E / 31.40444°N 30.41639°E / 31.40444; 30.41639Country  EgyptGovernorate BeheiraPopulation (1996) • Total 58,432Time zone EET (UTC+2) • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)Rosetta (/roʊˈzɛtə/; Arabic: رشيد‎ Rašīd  IPA: [ɾɑˈʃiːd]; French: Rosette  [ʁo.zɛt]; Coptic: ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ Rashit) is a port city of the Nile Delta, located 65 km (40 mi) east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira governorate. Founded around in the 9th century, Rosetta boomed with the decline of Alexandria following the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517, only to wane in importance after Alexandria's revival
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Mudbrick
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw. In warm regions with very little timber available to fuel a kiln, bricks were generally sun dried. In some cases brickmakers extended the life of mud bricks by putting fired bricks on top or covering them with stucco.Contents1 Ancient world 2 Adobe 3 Banco 4 Mudbrick
Mudbrick
architecture worldwide 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksAncient world[edit]Mud-brick stamped with seal impression of raised relief of the Treasury of the Vizier. From Lahun, Fayum, Egypt. 12th Dynasty
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Ninth Dynasty Of Egypt
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Before Christ
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Tenth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Tenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty X) is often combined with the 7th, 8th, 9th and early 11th Dynasties under the group title First Intermediate Period.[1] Rulers[edit] The 9th Dynasty was founded at Herakleopolis Magna, and the 10th Dynasty continued there. At this time Egypt was not unified, and there is some overlap between these and other local dynasties. The Turin Canon lists eighteen kings for this royal line, but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost.[2] The following is a possible list of rulers of the Tenth Dynasty based on the Turin Canon, as egyptologists have differing opinions about the order of succession within the two dynasties. Among them, only Wahkare Khety and Merykare
Merykare
are undoubtedly attested by archaeological finds:Tenth Dynasty (according to Hayes) (c
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Eighth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Eighth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty VIII) is a poorly known line of short-lived pharaohs reigning in the early 22nd century BC, a troubled time referred to as the very end of the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
or the beginning of the First Intermediate Period. The Eighth Dynasty ruled Egypt for approximately 20–45 years and various dates have been proposed: 2190—2165 BC,[1] 2181–2160 BC,[2][3] 2191–2145 BC,[4] 2150–2118 BC.[5] The power of the pharaohs in this time was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was on the rise
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