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Lower Egypt
LOWER EGYPT (Egyptian Arabic : مصر السفلى‎‎ Maṣr El Sofla) is the northernmost region of Egypt
Egypt
: the fertile Nile Delta
Nile Delta
, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo
Cairo
, and Dahshur
Dahshur
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt
Egypt
* 4 List of nomes * 5 See also * 6 References GEOGRAPHYIn ancient times, Pliny the Elder (N.H. 5.11) said that upon reaching the delta the Nile
Nile
split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac , the Tanitic , the Mendesian , the Phatnitic , the Sebennytic , the Bolbitine , and the Canopic
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Canopus, Egypt
CANOPUS, also known as CANOBUS, was an Ancient Egyptian coastal town, located in the Nile Delta
Nile Delta
. Its site is in the eastern outskirts of modern-day Alexandria
Alexandria
, around 25 kilometers (16 mi) from the center of that city. Canopus was located on the western bank at the mouth of the westernmost branch of the Delta – known as the Canopic or Heracleotic branch. It belonged to the seventh Egyptian Nome , known as 'Menelaites', and later as 'Canopites', after it. It was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria, along with Naucratis
Naucratis
and Heracleion . Its ruins lie near the present Egyptian village of Abu Qir
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Nile
The NILE ( Arabic
Arabic
: النيل‎‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic : ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian : Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew : היאור, Ha-Ye'or or השיחור, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa . It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, however other conflicting sources cite a 2007 study that gave the title to the Amazon River
River
in South America
South America

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Rosetta
Coordinates : 31°24′N 30°25′E / 31.400°N 30.417°E / 31.400; 30.417 Rosetta رشيد Rashid Rosetta
Rosetta
Rosetta
Rosetta
Location in Egypt Coordinates: 31°24′16″N 30°24′59″E / 31.40444°N 30.41639°E / 31.40444; 30.41639 COUNTRY Egypt
Egypt
GOVERNORATE Beheira POPULATION (1996) • TOTAL 58,432 TIME ZONE EET ( UTC+2
UTC+2
) • SUMMER (DST ) EEST ( UTC+3
UTC+3
)ROSETTA (/roʊˈzɛtə/ ; Arabic : رشيد‎‎ Rašīd IPA: ; French : Rosette ) is a port city of the Nile Delta
Nile Delta
, located 65 km (40 mi) east of Alexandria
Alexandria
, in Egypt
Egypt
's Beheira governorate
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Mudbrick
A MUDBRICK is a brick , made of a mixture of loam , mud , sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw . In warm regions with very little timber available to fuel a kiln , bricks were generally sun dried. In some cases brickmakers extended the life of mud bricks by putting fired bricks on top or covering them with stucco . CONTENTS * 1 Adobe
Adobe
* 2 Banco * 3 Ancient world * 4 Mudbrick
Mudbrick
architecture worldwide * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ADOBE Main article: Adobe
Adobe
In areas of Spanish influence, mud-brick construction is called adobe , and developed over time into a complete system of wall protection, flat roofing and finishes which in modern English usage is often referred to as adobe style, regardless of the construction method
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Middle Kingdom Of Egypt
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology)
Kingdom (biology)
, a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God
Kingdom of

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River
A RIVER is a natural flowing watercourse , usually freshwater , flowing towards an ocean , sea , lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream , creek, brook, rivulet, and rill . There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features , although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn " in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/ , Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; Arabic
Arabic
: بلاد الرافدين‎‎ bilād ar-rāfidayn; Kurdish : میزۆپۆتامیا‎; Persian : میان‌رودان‎‎ miyān rudān; Syriac : ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ‎ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") was a historical region situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system
Tigris–Euphrates river system
, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq
Iraq
plus Kuwait
Kuwait
, the eastern parts of Syria
Syria
, Southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders . The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c
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Scrubland
SHRUBLAND, SCRUBLAND, SCRUB, BRUSH, or BUSH is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs , often also including grasses , herbs , and geophytes . Shrubland may either occur naturally or be the result of human activity. It may be the mature vegetation type in a particular region and remain stable over time, or a transitional community that occurs temporarily as the result of a disturbance, such as fire. A stable state may be maintained by regular natural disturbance such as fire or browsing . Shrubland may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire. The term "shrubland" was coined in 1903. Shrubland species generally show a wide range of adaptations to fire, such as heavy seed production, lignotubers , and fire-induced germination
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Eleventh Dynasty Of Egypt
The ELEVENTH DYNASTY of ancient Egypt (notated DYNASTY XI) is a well attested group of rulers, whose earlier members before Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period , while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom . They all ruled from Thebes . The relative chronology of the 11th Dynasty is well established by contemporary attestations and, except for count Intef and Mentuhotep IV, by the Turin canon : PHARAOHS OF DYNASTY XI PHARAOH HORUS-NAME REIGN BURIAL CONSORT(S) COMMENTS Intef the Elder Iry-pat , "the Count", probably the same person as "Intef, son of Iku"
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Twelfth Dynasty Of Egypt
The TWELFTH DYNASTY of ancient Egypt (DYNASTY XII), is often combined with the Eleventh , Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom
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Papyrus
PAPYRUS /pəˈpaɪrəs/ is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as writing surface . It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus
Cyperus papyrus
, a wetland sedge . Papyrus
Papyrus
(plural: papyri) can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll , an early form of a book. An official letter on a papyrus of the 3rd century BCE Papyrus
Papyrus
is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First Dynasty ), as the papyrus plant was once abundant across the Nile Delta
Nile Delta
. It was also used throughout the Mediterranean region and in the Kingdom of Kush . Apart from a writing material, ancient Egyptians employed papyrus in the construction of other artifacts , such as reed boats , mats , rope , sandals , and baskets
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List Of Ancient Egyptian Dynasties
In Ancient Egyptian history, dynasties are series of rulers sharing a common origin. They are usually, but not always, of the same family. Ancient Egypt's historical period is traditionally divided into thirty-one pharaonic dynasties. The first thirty divisions are due to the 3rd century BC Egyptian priest Manetho , and appeared in his now-lost work Aegyptiaca, which was perhaps written for the Greek-speaking Ptolemaic Egyptian ruler of the time. The name of the short-lived thirty-first dynasty is a later coining. While widely used and useful, the system does have its shortcomings. Some dynasties only ruled part of Egypt and existed concurrently with other dynasties based in other cities. The Seventh might not have existed at all, the Tenth seems to be a continuation of the Ninth , and there might have been one or several Upper Egyptian Dynasties before the First Dynasty . This page lists articles on dynasties of Ancient Egypt
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Before Christ
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with AD counting years from the start of this epoch , and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Seventh Dynasty Of Egypt
The SEVENTH DYNASTY OF EGYPT would mark the beginning of the First Intermediate Period in the early 22nd century BC . Almost nothing is known of this dynasty and Egyptologists often consider it fictitious. In the 3rd century BC, the Egyptian priest Manetho wrote Aegyptiaca, a now lost work on the history of Egypt, in which he coined the names of the first thirty Egyptian Dynasties. He describes a period after the end of the Sixth Dynasty , in which 70 kings would have ruled over a period of 70 days, a period that he calls the Seventh Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty , is not quite as obscure. Its kings are named in other sources, namely in the Abydos King List
Abydos King List
. REFERENCES * ^ Wilkinson, Toby (2010). "Timeline". The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. New York: Random House. p. xiii. ISBN 9781408810026 . The system of dynasties devised in the third century B.C
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Sixth Dynasty Of Egypt
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house "; which may be styled "royal ", "princely ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt , the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China
Imperial China
, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase
Ming vase
")
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