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Lower Cretaceous
The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/, kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Marine Reptile
Marine reptiles are reptiles which have become secondarily adapted for an aquatic or semiaquatic life in a marine environment. The earliest marine reptiles arose in the Permian
Permian
period during the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era. During the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era, many groups of reptiles became adapted to life in the seas, including such familiar clades as the ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs (these two orders were once thought united in the group "Enaliosauria,"[1] a classification now cladistically obsolete), mosasaurs, nothosaurs, placodonts, sea turtles, thalattosaurs and thalattosuchians
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Campanian
The Campanian
Campanian
is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series). The Campanian spans the time from 83.6 ± 0.7 Ma to 72.1 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Santonian
Santonian
and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.[2] The Campanian
Campanian
was an age when a worldwide sea level rise drowned many coastal areas
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Maastrichtian
The Maastrichtian
Maastrichtian
( /mɑːˈstrɪktiən/) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age (uppermost stage) of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series, the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period or system, and of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era or erathem. It spanned the interval from 72.1 to 66 million years ago
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Geologic Period
A geologic period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth's history. Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages. The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system.Contents1 Structure 2 Correlation issues 3 See also 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
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Myr
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of 7006100000000000000♠1,000,000 (i.e. 7006100000000000000♠1×106) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.Contents1 Usage 2 Debate 3 See also 4 ReferencesUsage[edit] Myr
Myr
is in common use where the term is often written, such as in Earth science and cosmology. Myr
Myr
is seen with mya, "million years ago". Together they make a reference system, one to a quantity, the other to a particular place in a year numbering system that is time before the present. Myr
Myr
is deprecated in geology, but in astronomy myr is standard
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Mesozoic Era
The Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era ( /ˌmɛsəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ or /ˌmɛzəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/[1][2]) is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the Age of Reptiles, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell
Gideon Mantell
who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, Plesiosaurus
Plesiosaurus
and Pterodactylus. This Era is also called from a paleobotanist view the Age of Conifers.[3] Mesozoic
Mesozoic
means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal" or "living being".[4] It is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
("new life")
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Wea

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Inland Sea (geology)
An inland sea (also known as an epeiric sea or an epicontinental sea) is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during periods of high sea level that result in marine transgressions. In modern times, continents stand high, eustatic sea levels are low, and there are few inland seas, none larger than the Caspian Sea
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Extinct
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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Ammonites
See textAmmonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea
Ammonoidea
of the class Cephalopoda. These molluscs are more closely related to living coleoids (i.e., octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish) than they are to shelled nautiloids such as the living Nautilus
Nautilus
species. The earliest ammonites appear during the Devonian, and the last species died out during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Ammonites are excellent index fossils, and it is often possible to link the rock layer in which a particular species or genus is found to specific geologic time periods. Their fossil shells usually take the form of planispirals, although there were some helically spiraled and nonspiraled forms (known as heteromorphs). The name "ammonite", from which the scientific term is derived, was inspired by the spiral shape of their fossilized shells, which somewhat resemble tightly coiled rams' horns
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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Rudists
Rudists
Rudists
are a group of box-, tube-, or ring-shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
and became so diverse during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean.Contents1 Shell description 2 Fossil range and extinction 3 Taxonomy 4 Ecology 5 References 6 External linksShell description[edit] The Late Jurassic
Jurassic
forms were elongate, with both valves being similarly shaped, often pipe or stake-shaped, while the reef-building forms of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
had one valve that became a flat lid, with the other valve becoming an inverted spike-like cone
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Dinosaur
Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs
are a diverse group of reptiles[note 1] of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic
Triassic
period, between 243 and 231 million years ago,[1] although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research.[2] They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic– Jurassic
Jurassic
extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods
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