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Low German
Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk German: Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch Dutch: NederduitsNative to Northern Germany Western Germany Eastern Netherlands Southern DenmarkEthnicity Dutch, Frisians
Frisians
and Germans; Historically Saxons ( Germanic peoples
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Passive Speaker (language)
A passive speaker (also referred to as a receptive bilingual or passive bilingual) is a category of speaker who has had enough exposure to a language in childhood to have a native-like comprehension of it, but has little or no active command of it.[1] Such passively fluent individuals are often raised in an environment where the language was spoken but did not become native speakers.[2] Such speakers are especially common in language shift communities where speakers of a declining language do not acquire active competence. Around 10% of the Ainu people
Ainu people
who speak the language are considered passive speakers. Passive speakers are often targeted in language revival efforts to increase the number of speakers of a language quickly, as they are likely to gain active and near-native speaking skills more quickly than those with no knowledge of the language
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Western Germany
Western Germany
Germany
(German: Westdeutschland) is a region in the west of Germany. The exact area defined by the term is not constant, but it usually includes North Rhine-Westphalia. The Saarland
Saarland
and Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
are also sometimes included but are usually considered Southwestern Germany. Hesse
Hesse
is often considered as Central Germany
Germany
(together with Thuringia). West of the Harz
Harz
in Central Germany, or the line between the cities of Hamburg
Hamburg
and Munich, is the western part, but again, these distinctions must only be considered very loosely, especially not in a political sense. Politically, Germans often still identify the term Westdeutschland with the Bonn
Bonn
Republic, the Cold War-era West Germany
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Irminones
The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones (Ancient Greek: Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe
Elbe
watershed and by the 1st century AD expanding into Bavaria, Swabia
Swabia
and Bohemia
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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Paraguay
Coordinates: 23°S 58°W / 23°S 58°W / -23; -58Republic of ParaguayRepública del Paraguay  (Spanish) Tetã Paraguái  (Guaraní)Flag (obverse)Seal [nb 1]Motto: "Paz y justicia" (Spanish) "Peace and justice"Anthem:  Paraguayos, República o Muerte  (Spanish) Paraguayans, Republic or DeathLocation of  Paraguay  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Asunción 25°16′S 57°40′W / 25.267°S 57.667°W / -25.267; -57.667Official languagesSpanish GuaraniEthnic groups (2016[1])95% Mestizo 5% otherDemonym Paraguayan Guaraní (colloquial)[2]Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentHoracio Cartes• Vice PresidentJuan AfaraLegislature Congress• Upper houseSenate• Lowe
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Low German Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Mexico
Coordinates: 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102United Mexican States Estados Unidos Mexicanos  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (English: "Mexican National Anthem")Capital and largest city Mexico
Mexico
City 19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133Official languagesNone at federal level[b] Spanish (de facto)Recognized regional languagesSpanish 68 native languages[1]National language Spanish[b]Religion83% Roman Catholicism 10% Other Christian 0.2% Othe
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Frisians
The Frisians
Frisians
are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and northwestern Germany.[1][2] They inhabit an area known as
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