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Longitude
Longitude
Longitude
(/ˈlɒndʒɪtjuːd/ or /ˈlɒndʒɪtuːd/, Australian and British also /ˈlɒŋɡɪtjuːd/),[1][2] is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians (lines running from the North Pole
North Pole
to the South Pole) connect points with the same longitude. By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, was allocated the position of zero degrees longitude. The longitude of other places is measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
to +180° eastward and −180° westward
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West
West
West
is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from east.Contents1 Etymology 2 Navigation 3 Cultural 4 Symbolic meanings 5 Fantasy Fiction 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "west" is a Germanic word passed into some Romance languages (ouest in French, oest in Catalan, ovest in Italian, oeste in Spanish and Portuguese)
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International Terrestrial Reference System
The International Terrestrial Reference System
International Terrestrial Reference System
(ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface. This is done in much the same way that a physical standard might be described as a set of procedures for creating a realization of that standard. The ITRS defines a geocentric system of coordinates using the SI system of measurement. An International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is a realization of the ITRS. New ITRF solutions are produced every few years, using the latest mathematical and surveying techniques to attempt to realize the ITRS as precisely as possible. Due to experimental error, any given ITRF will differ very slightly from any other realization of the ITRF
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Sea Level Datum Of 1929
The Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America by the General Adjustment of 1929. The datum was used to measure elevation (altitude) above, and depression (depth) below, mean sea level (MSL). Mean sea level
Mean sea level
was measured at 26 tide gauges: 21 in the United States and 5 in Canada. The datum was defined by the observed heights of mean sea level at the 26 tide gauges and by the set of elevations of all bench marks resulting from the adjustment. The adjustment required a total of 66,315 miles (106,724 km) of leveling with 246 closed circuits and 25 circuits at sea level. Since the Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was a hybrid model, it was not a pure model of mean sea level, the geoid, or any other equipotential surface
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 reference system also known as the Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid, is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian: Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
PZ-90. It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders.[1] The Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid uses a semi-major axis (equatorial radius) a of 6,378,245 m, and an inverse flattening 1/f of 298.3.[2]:220 Citations and notes[edit]^ slide 11, Borodko ^ Office, United States Naval Observatory Nautical Almanac; Office, Great Britain Nautical Almanac (2005). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
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Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
The Quasi- Zenith
Zenith
Satellite System (QZSS) (or Juntencho eisei shisutemu (準天頂衛星システム) in Japanese) is a project of the Japanese government for the development of a four-satellite regional time transfer system and a satellite-based augmentation system for the United States
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Southern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°S 0.00000°E / -90.00000; 0.00000A photo of Earth
Earth
from Apollo 17
Apollo 17
(Blue Marble) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspectiveThe Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
highlighted in yellow ( Antarctica
Antarctica
not depicted)The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
from above the South PoleThe Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
is the half sphere of Earth
Earth
which is south of the Equator
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
shaded blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North
North
PoleThe Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the Equator
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Horizontal Plane
In geometry, physics, astronomy, geography, and related sciences, a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is perpendicular to the gradient of the gravity field at that point— in other words, if apparent gravity makes a plumb bob hang perpendicular to the plane at that point. Alternatively, a spirit level, which exploits the buoyancy of a bubble, can be used to determine if the plane is horizontal. In radio science, horizontal plane is used to plot an antenna's relative field strength in relation to the ground (which directly affects a station's coverage area) on a polar graph. Normally the maximum of 1.000 or 0 dB is at the top, which is labeled 0o, running clockwise back around to the top at 360°. Other field strengths are expressed as a decimal less than 1.000, a percentage less than 100%, or decibels less than 0 dB. If the graph is of an actual or proposed installation, rotation is applied so that the top is 0o true north
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Cartography
Cartography
Cartography
(from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped
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Vertical Direction
The usage of the inter-related terms horizontal and vertical as well as their symmetries and asymmetries vary with context (e.g. two vs. three dimensions or calculations using a flat earth approximation vs. spherical earth). In astronomy, geography, and related sciences and contexts, a direction passing by a given point is said to be vertical if it is locally aligned with the local gravity vector at that point[citation needed]
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East
East
East
is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from west.Contents1 Etymology 2 Navigation 3 Cultural 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word east comes from Middle English
Middle English
est, from Old English
Old English
ēast, which itself comes from the Proto-Germanic *aus-to- or *austra- "east, toward the sunrise", from Proto-Indo-European *aus- "to shine," or "dawn".[1] This is similar to Old High German
Old High German
*ōstar "to the east", Latin
Latin
aurora "dawn", and Greek ēōs ἠώς.[2] Ēostre, a Germanic goddess of dawn, might have been a personification of both dawn and the cardinal points. Navigation[edit] By convention, the right hand side of a map is east. This convention has developed from the use of a compass, which places north at the top
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Ellipsoid
An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation. An ellipsoid is a quadric surface, that is a surface that may be defined as the zero set of a polynomial of degree two in three variables. Among quadric surfaces, an ellipsoid is characterized by either of the two following properties. Every planar cross section is either an ellipse, or is empty, or is reduced to a single point (this explains the name, meaning "ellipse like"). It is bounded, which means that it may be enclosed in a sufficiently large sphere. An ellipsoid has three pairwise perpendicular axes of symmetry which intersect at a center of symmetry, called the center of the ellipsoid. The line segments that are delimited on the axes of symmetry by the ellipsoid are called the principal axes, or simply axes of the ellipsoid
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Equator
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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Legenda (satellite System)
Legenda, or the MKRC Legenda system, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites, which were nuclear powered.[1] Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. See also[edit]P-700 GranitReferences[edit]^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg. Thirty-six were launched .. Russian reconnaissance satellitesIMINTPhotographicYantar Zenit Orlets AlmazElectro-opticalAraks Arkon Enisei Kobalt PersonaSIGINTELINTTselina-2 LianaMASINTSecondary MissionOko US-KMO EKSKosmosThis Soviet Union–related article is a stub
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Map
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or imagined, without regard to context or scale, such as in brain mapping, DNA mapping, or computer network topology mapping. The space being mapped may be two dimensional, such as the surface of the earth, three dimensional, such as the interior of the earth, or even more abstract spaces of any dimension, such as arise in modeling phenomena having many independent variables. Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a very long tradition and exist from ancient times. The word "map" comes from the medieval Latin
Latin
Mappa mundi, wherein mappa meant napkin or cloth and mundi the world
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