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Logic Gate
In electronics , a LOGIC GATE is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function ; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an IDEAL LOGIC GATE, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out , or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison)
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Mathematics
MATHEMATICS (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity , structure , space , and change . There are many views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics . Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures . Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof . When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic , mathematics developed from counting , calculation , measurement , and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry
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RCA
The RCA
RCA
CORPORATION was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA in 1919. It was initially a wholly owned subsidiary of General Electric
General Electric
(GE); however, in 1932 GE was required to divest its control as part of the settlement of an antitrust suit. At its height as an independent company RCA
RCA
was the dominant communications firm in the United States. Beginning in the 1920s it was a major manufacturer of radio receivers, and also developed the first national radio network, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). It had a leading role in the introduction of black-and-white television in the 1940s and 1950s, and color television in the 1950s and 1960s
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Optics
OPTICS is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light , including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible , ultraviolet , and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave , other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays , microwaves , and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics , treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces
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Relay Logic
RELAY LOGIC is a method of implementing combinational logic in electrical control circuits by using several electrical relays wired in a particular configuration. CONTENTS * 1 Ladder logic * 2 Relay logic
Relay logic
design * 3 Applications * 4 Other kinds of relay logic * 5 See also LADDER LOGIC Main article: ladder logic Example Ladder Logic Diagram The schematic diagrams for relay logic circuits are often called line diagrams, because the inputs and outputs are essentially drawn in a series of lines. A relay logic circuit is an electrical network consisting of lines, or rungs, in which each line or rung must have continuity to enable the output device. A typical circuit consists of a number of rungs, with each rung controlling an output. This output is controlled by a combination of input or output conditions, such as input switches and control relays
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Texas Instruments
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INC. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors , which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Headquartered in Dallas
Dallas
, Texas, United States, TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume. Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors , which accounts for more than 85% of their revenue. TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors . To date, TI has more than 43,000 patents worldwide. Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
emerged in 1951 after a reorganization of Geophysical Service Incorporated , a company founded in 1930 that manufactured equipment for use in the seismic industry, as well as defense electronics
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Computer Storage
COMPUTER DATA STORAGE, often called STORAGE or MEMORY, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data . It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. :15-16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy , :468-473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage"; however, "memory" is sometimes also used when referring to persistent storage
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Bipolar Transistors
A BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR or BJT) is a type of transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers. In contrast, unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors , only use one kind of charge carrier. For their operation, BJTs use two junctions between two semiconductor types, n-type and p-type. BJTs are manufactured in two types, NPN and PNP, and are available as individual components, or fabricated in integrated circuits , often in large numbers. The basic function of a BJT is to amplify current. This allows BJTs to be used as amplifiers or switches, giving them wide applicability in electronic equipment, including computers, televisions, mobile phones, audio amplifiers, industrial control, and radio transmitters
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Thermionic Valve
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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Diode-transistor Logic
DIODE–TRANSISTOR LOGIC (DTL) is a class of digital circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor–transistor logic . It is called so because the logic gating function (e.g., AND) is performed by a diode network and the amplifying function is performed by a transistor (in contrast with RTL and TTL ). CONTENTS* 1 Implementations * 1.1 Discrete * 1.2 Integrated * 2 Speed improvement * 3 Interfacing considerations * 4 See also * 5 References IMPLEMENTATIONS Schematic of basic two-input DTL NAND gate. R3, R4 and V− shift the positive output voltage of the input DL stage below the ground (to cut off the transistor at low input voltage). The DTL circuit shown in the picture consists of three stages: an input diode logic stage (D1, D2 and R1), an intermediate level shifting stage (R3 and R4), and an output common-emitter amplifier stage (Q1 and R2). If both inputs A and B are high (logic 1; near V+), then the diodes D1 and D2 are reverse biased
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Field-effect Transistor
The FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device. FETs are also known as UNIPOLAR TRANSISTORS since they involve single-carrier-type operation. Many different implementations of field effect transistors exist. Field effect transistors generally display very high input impedance at low frequencies. The conductivity between the drain and source terminals is controlled by an electric field in the device, which is generated by the voltage difference between the body and the gate of the device
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Relay
A RELAY is an electrically operated switch . Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays . Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor . Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts , instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Analytical Engine
The ANALYTICAL ENGINE was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
. It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's difference engine , a design for a mechanical computer. The Analytical Engine
Analytical Engine
incorporated an arithmetic logic unit , control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops , and integrated memory , making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete . In other words, the logical structure of the Analytical Engine
Analytical Engine
was essentially the same as that which has dominated computer design in the electronic era. Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding
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Vacuum Tube
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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Gain (electronics)
In electronics , GAIN is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier ) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal. It is usually defined as the mean ratio of the signal amplitude or power at the output port to the amplitude or power at the input port. It is often expressed using the logarithmic decibel (dB) units ("dB gain"). A gain greater than one (greater than zero dB), that is amplification , is the defining property of an active component or circuit, while a passive circuit will have a gain of less than one. The term gain alone is ambiguous, and can refer to the ratio of output to input voltage (voltage gain), current (current gain) or electric power (power gain)
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Boolean Function
In mathematics and logic , a (FINITARY ) BOOLEAN FUNCTION (or switching function) is a function of the form ƒ : Bk → B, where B = {0, 1} is a Boolean domain and k is a non-negative integer called the arity of the function. In the case where k = 0, the "function" is essentially a constant element of B. Every k-ary Boolean function can be expressed as a propositional formula in k variables x1, …, xk, and two propositional formulas are logically equivalent if and only if they express the same Boolean function. There are 22k k-ary functions for every k. BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS IN APPLICATIONSA Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. Such functions play a basic role in questions of complexity theory as well as the design of circuits and chips for digital computers
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