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Logic Gate
In electronics , a LOGIC GATE is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function ; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an IDEAL LOGIC GATE, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out , or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison)
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Discrete Circuit
An ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT is composed of individual electronic components , such as resistors , transistors , capacitors , inductors and diodes , connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another. Circuits can be constructed of discrete components connected by individual pieces of wire, but today it is much more common to create interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate (a printed circuit board or PCB) and solder the components to these interconnections to create a finished circuit. In an integrated circuit or IC, the components and interconnections are formed on the same substrate, typically a semiconductor such as silicon or (less commonly) gallium arsenide
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Electronics
ELECTRONICS is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes , transistors , diodes , integrated circuits , optoelectronics , sensors etc. associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit . The science of electronics is also considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering . The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible, and electronics is widely used in information processing , telecommunication , and signal processing
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Boolean Function
In mathematics and logic , a (FINITARY ) BOOLEAN FUNCTION (or switching function) is a function of the form ƒ : Bk → B, where B = {0, 1} is a Boolean domain and k is a non-negative integer called the arity of the function. In the case where k = 0, the "function" is essentially a constant element of B. Every k-ary Boolean function can be expressed as a propositional formula in k variables x1, …, xk, and two propositional formulas are logically equivalent if and only if they express the same Boolean function. There are 22k k-ary functions for every k. BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS IN APPLICATIONSA Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. Such functions play a basic role in questions of complexity theory as well as the design of circuits and chips for digital computers
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Logical Operation
In logic , a LOGICAL CONNECTIVE (also called a LOGICAL OPERATOR) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language ) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective. The most common logical connectives are BINARY CONNECTIVES (also called DYADIC CONNECTIVES) which join two sentences which can be thought of as the function's operands . Also commonly, negation is considered to be a UNARY CONNECTIVE. Logical connectives along with quantifiers are the two main types of logical constants used in formal systems such as propositional logic and predicate logic . Semantics of a logical connective is often, but not always, presented as a truth function . A logical connective is similar to but not equivalent to a conditional operator
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Binary Number
In mathematics and digital electronics , a BINARY NUMBER is a number expressed in the BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM or BASE-2 NUMERAL SYSTEM which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one) . The base -2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates , the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices . Each digit is referred to as a bit
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Rise Time
In electronics , when describing a voltage or current step function , RISE TIME is the time taken by a signal to change from a specified low value to a specified high value. These values may be expressed as ratios or, equivalently, as percentages with respect to a given reference value. In analog electronics or digital electronics , these percentages are commonly the 10% and 90% (or equivalently 0.1 and 0.9) of the output step height: however, other values are commonly used. For applications in control theory, according to Levine (1996 , p. 158), rise time is defined as "the time required for the response to rise from x% to y% of its final value", with 0% to 100% rise time common for underdamped second order systems, 5% to 95% for critically damped and 10% to 90% for overdamped ones. According to Orwiler (1969 , p. 22), the term "rise time" applies to either positive or negative step response , even if a displayed negative excursion is popularly termed fall time
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Fan-out
In digital electronics , the FAN-OUT of a logic gate output is the number of gate inputs it can drive. In most designs, logic gates are connected to form more complex circuits. While no logic gate input can be fed by more than one output, it is common for one output to be connected to several inputs. The technology used to implement logic gates usually allows a certain number of gate inputs to be wired directly together without additional interfacing circuitry. The MAXIMUM FAN-OUT of an output measures its load-driving capability: it is the greatest number of inputs of gates of the same type to which the output can be safely connected. CONTENTS * 1 Logical practice * 2 Theory * 2.1 DC fan-out * 2.2 AC fan-out * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LOGICAL PRACTICEMaximum limits on fan-out are usually stated for a given logic family or device in the manufacturer's datasheets. These limits assume that the driven devices are members of the same family
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Ideal And Real Op-amps
An OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (often OP-AMP or OPAMP) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an op-amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals. Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers , where they were used to perform mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear, and frequency-dependent circuits. The popularity of the op-amp as a building block in analog circuits is due to its versatility. Due to negative feedback , the characteristics of an op-amp circuit, its gain, input and output impedance , bandwidth etc. are determined by external components and have little dependence on temperature coefficients or manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself
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Diode
In electronics , a DIODE is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance ); it has low (ideally zero) resistance to the current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes , a plate (anode) and a heated cathode . Semiconductor
Semiconductor
diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices . The discovery of crystals ' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braunin 1874. The first semiconductor diodes, called cat\'s whisker diodes , developed around 1906, were made of mineral crystals such as galena . Today, most diodes are made of silicon , but other semiconductors such as selenium and germanium are sometimes used
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Transistor
A TRANSISTOR is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power . It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits . The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices , and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time
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Vacuum Tube
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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Relay
A RELAY is an electrically operated switch . Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays . Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor . Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts , instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Relay Logic
RELAY LOGIC is a method of implementing combinational logic in electrical control circuits by using several electrical relays wired in a particular configuration. CONTENTS * 1 Ladder logic * 2 Relay logic
Relay logic
design * 3 Applications * 4 Other kinds of relay logic * 5 See also LADDER LOGIC Main article: ladder logic Example Ladder Logic Diagram The schematic diagrams for relay logic circuits are often called line diagrams, because the inputs and outputs are essentially drawn in a series of lines. A relay logic circuit is an electrical network consisting of lines, or rungs, in which each line or rung must have continuity to enable the output device. A typical circuit consists of a number of rungs, with each rung controlling an output. This output is controlled by a combination of input or output conditions, such as input switches and control relays
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Fluidic Logic
FLUIDICS, or FLUIDIC LOGIC, is the use of a fluid to perform analog or digital operations similar to those performed with electronics . The physical basis of fluidics is pneumatics and hydraulics , based on the theoretical foundation of fluid dynamics . The term fluidics is normally used when devices have no moving parts , so ordinary hydraulic components such as hydraulic cylinders and spool valves are not considered or referred to as fluidic devices. The 1960s saw the application of fluidics to sophisticated control systems , with the introduction of the fluidic amplifier. A jet of fluid can be deflected by a weaker jet striking it at the side. This provides nonlinear amplification , similar to the transistor used in electronic digital logic. It is used mostly in environments where electronic digital logic would be unreliable, as in systems exposed to high levels of electromagnetic interference or ionizing radiation
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Optics
OPTICS is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light , including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics
Optics
usually describes the behaviour of visible , ultraviolet , and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave , other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays , microwaves , and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics , treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces
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