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Logic Gate
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device[1] (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison). Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches, but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic relays (relay logic), fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecules, or even mechanical elements
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Gain (electronics)
In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port[1][2][3][4] by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal
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Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Field-effect Transistor
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device. FETs are also known as unipolar transistors since they involve single-carrier-type operation. Many different implementations of field effect transistors exist. Field effect transistors generally display very high input impedance at low frequencies
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Bipolar Transistors
A bipolar junction transistor (bipolar transistor or BJT) is a type of transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers. In contrast, unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors, only use one kind of charge carrier. For their operation, BJTs use two junctions between two semiconductor types, n-type and p-type. BJTs are manufactured in two types, NPN and PNP, and are available as individual components, or fabricated in integrated circuits, often in large numbers. The basic function of a BJT is to amplify current
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Computer Memory
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage". Computer
Computer
memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access information but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage, through a memory management technique called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store.[1] The term "memory", meaning "primary storage" or "main memory", is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon-based transistors, used for example as primary storage but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices. There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile
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Diode–transistor Logic
Diode–transistor logic
Diode–transistor logic
(DTL) is a class of digital circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor–transistor logic. It is called so because the logic gating function (e.g., AND) is performed by a diode network and the amplifying function is performed by a transistor (in contrast with RTL and TTL).Contents1 Implementations1.1 Discrete 1.2 Integrated2 Speed improvement 3 Interfacing considerations 4 See also 5 ReferencesImplementations[edit]Schematic of basic two-input DTL NAND gate. R3, R4 and V− shift the positive output voltage of the input DL stage below the ground (to cut off the transistor at low input voltage).The DTL circuit shown in the picture consists of three stages: an input diode logic stage (D1, D2 and R1), an intermediate level shifting stage (R3 and R4), and an output common-emitter amplifier stage (Q1 and R2)
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Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics
(from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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Analytical Engine
The Analytical Engine
Analytical Engine
was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.[2][3] It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, a design for a mechanical computer.[4] The Analytical Engine
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Optics
Optics
Optics
is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.[1] Optics
Optics
usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.[1] Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces
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Relay Logic
Relay logic
Relay logic
is a method of implementing combinational logic in electrical control circuits by using several electrical relays wired in a particular configuration.Contents1 Ladder logic 2 Relay logic
Relay logic
design 3 Applications 4 Other kinds of relay logic 5 See alsoLadder logic[edit] Main article: ladder logicExample Ladder Logic DiagramThe schematic diagrams for relay logic circuits are often called line diagrams, because the inputs and outputs are essentially drawn in a series of lines. A relay logic circuit is an electrical network consisting of lines, or rungs, in which each line or rung must have continuity to enable the output device. A typical circuit consists of a number of rungs, with each rung controlling an output. This output is controlled by a combination of input or output conditions, such as input switches and control relays
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Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.[4] Headquartered in Dallas, Texas, United States, TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume.[5] Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 85% of their revenue.[6] TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology[6] products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors
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Vacuum Tube
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube,[1][2][3] or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a heated cathode. This type is called a thermionic tube or thermionic valve. A phototube, however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect. Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases, usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode, contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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RCA
The RCA
RCA
Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio
Radio
Corporation of America in 1919. It was initially a wholly owned subsidiary of General Electric
General Electric
(GE); however, in 1932, GE was required to divest its control as part of the settlement of an antitrust suit. At its height as an independent company, RCA
RCA
was the dominant communications firm in the United States. Beginning in the early 1920s, RCA
RCA
was a major manufacturer of radio receivers, and also developed the first national radio network, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). It had a leading role in the introduction of black-and-white television in the 1940s and 1950s, and color television in the 1950s and 1960s
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Ideal And Real Op-amps
An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.[1] In this configuration, an op-amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals. Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers, where they were used to perform mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear, and frequency-dependent circuits. The popularity of the op-amp as a building block in analog circuits is due to its versatility. By using negative feedback, the characteristics of an op-amp circuit, its gain, input and output impedance, bandwidth etc
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Direct-coupled Transistor Logic
Direct-coupled transistor logic (DCTL) is similar to resistor–transistor logic (RTL) but the input transistor bases are connected directly to the collector outputs without any base resistors. Consequently, DCTL gates have fewer components, are more economical, and are simpler to fabricate onto integrated circuits than RTL gates. Unfortunately, DCTL has much smaller signal levels, has more susceptibility to ground noise, and requires matched transistor characteristics
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