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Lodestone
A lodestone is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite.[1][2] They are naturally occurring magnets, which can attract iron. The property of magnetism was first discovered in antiquity through lodestones.[3] Pieces of lodestone, suspended so they could turn, were the first magnetic compasses,[3][4][5][6] and their importance to early navigation is indicated by the name lodestone, which in Middle English
Middle English
means 'course stone' or 'leading stone',[7] from the now-obsolete meaning of lode as ‘journey, way’.[8] Lodestone
Lodestone
is one of only a very few minerals that is found naturally magnetized.[1] Magnetite
Magnetite
is black or brownish-black, with a metallic luster, a Mohs hardness of 5.5–6.5 and a black streak.Contents1 Origin 2 History 3 References 4 External linksOrigin[edit] The process by which lodestone is created has long been an open question in geology
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Amber
Amber
Amber
is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic
Neolithic
times.[2] Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.[3] Amber
Amber
is used in jewelry. It has also been used as a healing agent in folk medicine. There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents
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Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.[2][3] The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society
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Guiguzi
Guiguzi (鬼谷子) is the Chinese title given to a group of writings thought to have been compiled between the late Warring States
Warring States
period and the end of the Han Dynasty. The work, between 6,000–7,000 Chinese characters, discusses techniques of political lobbying based in Daoist
Daoist
thinking. There has been much speculation about the identity of the writer of Guiguizi, the origin of his name (literally 'The Sage of Ghost Valley') and the authenticity of the work as a whole. While there has been no final outcome to this discussion, Chinese scholars believe that the compilation reflects a genuine corpus of Warring States period writings on political lobbying
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Lüshi Chunqiu
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals,[1][2] is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
Chancellor Lü Buwei. In the evaluation of Michael Carson and Michael Loewe,The Lü shih ch'un ch'iu is unique among early works in that it is well organized and comprehensive, containing extensive passages on such subjects as music and agriculture, which are unknown elsewhere. It is also one of the longest of the early texts, extending to something over 100,000 words. (1993:324)Contents1 Background 2 Contents2.1 Integrity of the text3 Reception 4 Major positions 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] The Shiji
Shiji
(chap. 85, p. 2510) biography of Lü Buwei has the earliest information about the Lüshi Chunqiu
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Lunheng
The Lunheng, also known by numerous English translations, is a wide-ranging Chinese classic text by Wang Chong
Wang Chong
(27- c. 100 CE). First published in 80 CE, it contains critical essays on natural science and Chinese mythology, philosophy, and literature.Contents1 Name 2 Text 3 History 4 Content 5 References 6 External linksName[edit] The title Lunheng combines lun 論 or 论 "discuss; talk about; discourse; decide on; determine; mention; regard; consider" and heng 衡 "crosswise; balance beam; weigh; measure; judge; appreciate". English translations of the title include "Disquisitions" (Alfred Forke), "Critical Essays" (Fung Yu-lan), "The Balanced Inquiries" (Wing-tsit Chan), or "Discourses Weighed in the Balance" (Joseph Needham). Text[edit] The received Lunheng comprises 85 pian 篇 "articles; sections; chapters" in 30 juan 巻 "scrolls; volumes; books", with more than 200,000 characters
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Geomancy
Geomancy
Geomancy
(Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand. The most prevalent form of divinatory geomancy involves interpreting a series of 16 figures formed by a randomized process that involves recursion followed by analyzing them, often augmented with astrological interpretations. Geomancy
Geomancy
was practiced by people from all social classes
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Hematite
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. It is the oldest known[clarify] iron oxide mineral and is widespread in rocks and soils[5]. Hematite
Hematite
crystallizes in the rhombohedral lattice system, and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. Hematite
Hematite
and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C (1,740 °F). Hematite
Hematite
is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite), iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite
Hematite
is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle
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Remanent Magnetism
Remanence
Remanence
or remanent magnetization or residual magnetism is the magnetization left behind in a ferromagnetic material (such as iron) after an external magnetic field is removed. It is also the measure of that magnetization.[1] Colloquially, when a magnet is "magnetized" it has remanence.[2] The remanence of magnetic materials provides the magnetic memory in magnetic storage devices, and is used as a source of information on the past Earth's magnetic field in paleomagnetism. The equivalent term residual magnetization is generally used in engineering applications. In transformers, electric motors and generators a large residual magnetization is not desirable (see also electrical steel) as it is an unwanted contamination, for example a magnetization remaining in an electromagnet after the current in the coil is turned off
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Oxford University Press
Oxford
Oxford
University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world,[1] and the second oldest after Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies
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Gauss (unit)
The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B). It is named after German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss.[1][2] One gauss is defined as one maxwell per square centimeter
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Geophysical Research Letters
Geophysical Research Letters
Geophysical Research Letters
is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union
American Geophysical Union
that was established in 1974. The editor-in-chief is Noah Diffenbaugh.Contents1 Aims and scope 2 Abstracting and indexing 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksAims and scope[edit] The journal aims for rapid publication of concise research reports on one or more of the disciplines covered by the American Geophysical Union, such as atmospheric sciences, solid Earth, space science, oceanography, hydrology, land surface processes, and the cryosphere. The journal also publishes invited reviews that cover advances achieved during the past two or three years
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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