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Local Area Network
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.[1] By contrast, a wide area network (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally involves leased telecommunication circuits. Ethernet
Ethernet
and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
are the two most common technologies in use for local area networks. Historical technologies include ARCNET, Token ring, and AppleTalk.Contents1 History 2 Cabling 3 Wireless media 4 Technical aspects 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The increasing demand and use of computers in universities and research labs in the late 1960s generated the need to provide high-speed interconnections between computer systems
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Mac OS X
macOS (/ˌmækoʊˈɛs/;[5] previously Mac OS X, then OS X) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows.[6][7] macOS is the second major series of Macintosh
Macintosh
operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9
Mac OS 9
in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X
Mac OS X
10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X
OS X
10.8 Mountain Lion
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Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/,[2][3] abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office
suite, and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers
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PARC (company)
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated), formerly Xerox
Xerox
PARC, is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California,[1][2][3] with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.[citation needed] Founded in 1970 as a division of Xerox
Xerox<

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DOS
DOS
DOS
(/dɒs/, /dɔːs/[1]) is a family of disk operating systems.[2] DOS
DOS
primarily consists of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC
IBM PC
DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other later compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS
DR-DOS
(1988), ROM-DOS (1989), PTS-DOS (1993), and FreeDOS
FreeDOS
(1998). MS-DOS
MS-DOS
dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems also use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966
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Lawrence Radiation Laboratory
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
(LBNL or LBL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills
Berkeley Hills
near Berkeley, California
Berkeley, California
that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by the University of California. The laboratory overlooks the University of California, Berkeley's main campus.Contents1 History 2 Lab Directors 3 Science mission 4 Operations and governance 5 Scientific achievements, inventions, and discoveries 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The laboratory was founded in August 26, 1931 by Ernest Lawrence
Ernest Lawrence
as the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley associated with the Physics Department
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Printer (computing)
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.[1] The first computer printer design was a mechanically driven apparatus by Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
for his difference engine in the 19th century; his mechanical printer design was not built until 2000.[2] The first electronic printer was the EP-101, invented by Japanese company Epson
Epson
and released in 1968.[3][4] The first commercial printers generally used mechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines. The demand for higher speed led to the development of new systems specifically for computer use. In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, and dot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced relatively low-quality output
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Leased Line
A leased line is a private bidirectional or symmetric telecommunications circuit between two or more locations provided in exchange for a monthly rent. Sometimes known as a private circuit or data line in the UK. Unlike traditional PSTN lines they do not have telephone numbers, each side of the line being permanently connected and dedicated to the other. Leased lines can be used for telephone, Internet, or other data services. Some are ringdown services, and some connect to a private branch exchange or router. Typically, leased lines are used by businesses to connect geographically distant offices. Unlike dial-up connections, a leased line is always active. The fee for the connection is a fixed monthly rate. The primary factors affecting the monthly fee are distance between end points and the speed of the circuit
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Windows NT
Windows NT
Windows NT
is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It is a processor-independent, multiprocessing, multi-user operating system. The first version of Windows NT
Windows NT
was Windows NT 3.1
Windows NT 3.1
and was produced for workstations and server computers. It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS
MS-DOS
(including Windows 1.0
Windows 1.0
through Windows 3.1x). Gradually, the Windows NT
Windows NT
family was expanded into Microsoft's general-purpose operating system product line for all personal computers, deprecating the Windows 9x
Windows 9x
family. "NT" formerly expanded to "New Technology" but no longer carries any specific meaning
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Chase Manhattan Bank
JPMorgan Chase
JPMorgan Chase
Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase Bank, is a national bank headquartered in Manhattan, New York City, that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking subsidiary of the U.S. multinational banking and financial services holding company, JPMorgan Chase
JPMorgan Chase
& Co. The bank was known as Chase Manhattan
Manhattan
Bank
Bank
until it merged with J.P. Morgan & Co
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Banyan Vines
Banyan VINES was a network operating system developed by Banyan Systems for computers running AT&T's UNIX System V. VINES is an acronym for Virtual Integrated NEtwork Service. Like Novell NetWare, VINES's network services were based on the archetypical Xerox XNS stack. James Allchin, who later worked as Group Vice President for Platforms at Microsoft
Microsoft
until his retirement on January 30, 2007, was the chief architect of Banyan VINES.Contents1 VINES technology 2 Protocol stack 3 VINES client software 4 Initial market release 5 Defense Department adoption 6 VINES competitors 7 Decline 8 Version history 9 References 10 ResourceVINES technology[edit] VINES ran on a low-level protocol known as VIP—the VINES Internetwork Protocol—that was essentially identical to the lower layers of XNS
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Windows For Workgroups
Windows 3.1x
Windows 3.1x
(codenamed Janus)[2][3][4] is a series of 16-bit operating environments produced by Microsoft
Microsoft
for use on personal computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during April 1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Subsequent versions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded by Windows 95
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3+Share
3+Share, also known simply as 3+ or 3 Plus, was a pioneering file and print sharing product from 3Com. Introduced in the early 1980s, 3+Share was competitive with Novell's NetWare in the network server business throughout the 1980s. It was replaced by the joint Microsoft-3Com LAN Manager in 1990, but 3Com exited the server market in 1991. In 1984, Microsoft announced MS-Net, a framework for building multitasking network servers that ran on top of single-tasking MS-DOS. MS-Net implemented only the basic services for file and print sharing, and left out the actual networking protocol stack in favor of a virtual system in the form of IBM's NetBIOS. Vendors, like 3Com, licensed the MS-Net system and then added device drivers and other parts of the protocol stack to implement a complete server system. In the case of 3+Share, 3Com based their networking solution on the seminal Xerox Network Systems (XNS), which 3Com's CEO Robert Metcalf had helped design
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LAN Manager
LAN Manager was a Network Operating System (NOS) available from multiple vendors and developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
in cooperation with 3Com Corporation. It was designed to succeed 3Com's 3+Share network server software which ran atop a heavily modified version of MS-DOS.Contents1 History 2 Cryptanalysis 3 LM hash details 4 Algorithm 5 Security weaknesses 6 Workarounds 7 Reasons for continued use of LM hash 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External linksHistory[edit] LAN Manager was based on the OS/2
OS/2
operating system co-developed by IBM and Microsoft. It originally used the Server Message Block protocol atop either the NetBIOS Frames protocol (NBF) or a specialized version of the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocol
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LAN Server
IBM LAN Server started as a close cousin of Microsoft LAN Manager and first shipped in early 1988. It was originally designed to run on top of Operating System/2 Extended Edition. The network client was called IBM LAN Requester and was included with OS/2 EE 1.1 by default. (Eventually IBM shipped other clients and supported yet more. Examples include the IBM OS/2 File/Print Client, IBM OS/2 Peer, and client software for Windows.) Here the short term LAN Server refers to the IBM OS/2 LAN Server product
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Telnet
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet
Internet
or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP). Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and standardized as Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet
Internet
Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet
Internet
standards
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