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Literal Translation
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") with or without conveying the sense of the original whole. In translation studies, "literal translation" denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts.[1] In translation theory, another term for "literal translation" is "metaphrase"; and for phrasal ("sense") translation — "paraphrase." When considered a bad practice of conveying word by word (lexeme to lexeme, or morpheme to lexeme) translation of non-technical type literal translations has the meaning of mistranslating idioms,[2] for example, or in the context of translating an analytic language to a synthetic language, it renders even the grammar unintelligible. The concept of literal translation may be viewed as an oxymoron (contradiction in terms), given that literal denotes something existing without interpretation, where
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Grammar
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules[1] for using that language and these rules constitute that language's grammar. The vast majority of the information in the grammar is — at least in the case of one's native language—acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers
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Paraphrase
A paraphrase /ˈpærəfreɪz/ is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words. The term itself is derived via Latin
Latin
paraphrasis from Greek παράφρασις, meaning "additional manner of expression". The act of paraphrasing is also called "paraphrasis". A paraphrase typically explains or clarifies the text that is being paraphrased. For example, "The signal was red" might be paraphrased as "The train was not allowed to pass because the signal was red". A paraphrase is usually introduced with verbum dicendi—a declaratory expression to signal the transition to the paraphrase. For example, in "The signal was red, that is, the train was not allowed to proceed," the that is signals the paraphrase that follows. A paraphrase does not need to accompany a direct quotation, the paraphrase typically serves to put the source's statement into perspective or to clarify the context in which it appeared
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Fandub
A fandub is a fan-made dub or redub of a live-action or animated production. Dubbing is the act of re-recording of a live-action or animated production, typically in a language other than the original. Most productions are translated from different languages, but fandubs do exist for productions that were produced in the fandubber's native language. The dialogue can range from being a close translation to a completely altered version of the original script's story and plots, as well as the personalities of protagonists. The reasons behind fandubbing can range from the production not receiving an official dub to the official dub being poorly received. Fandubs are most commonly done with Japanese animation, but can include live action and animated series and movies in any language
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Glocalization
Glocalization
Glocalization
(a portmanteau of globalization and localization) is the "simultaneous occurrence of both universalizing and particularizing tendencies in contemporary social, political, and economic systems."[1] The notion of glocalization "represents a challenge to simplistic conceptions of globalization processes as linear expansions of territorial scales
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Word Sense
In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning). For example, a dictionary may have over 50 different senses of the word "play", each of these having a different meaning based on the context of the word's usage in a sentence, as follows:We went to see the play Romeo and Juliet at the theater.The coach devised a great play that put the visiting team on the defensive.The children went out to play in the park.In each sentence we associate a different meaning of the word "play" based on hints the rest of the sentence gives us. People and computers, as they read words, must use a process called word-sense disambiguation[1][2] to find the correct meaning of a word. This process uses context to narrow the possible senses down to the probable ones
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Phrase
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy. A phrase typically appears within a clause, but it is possible also for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it.Contents1 Common and technical use 2 Heads and dependents2.1 Functional categories3 Phrase trees 4 Confusion: phrases in theories of syntax 5 The verb phrase (VP) as a source of controversy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksCommon and technical use[edit] There is a difference between the common use of the term phrase and its technical use in linguistics
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Lexeme
A lexeme ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain. It is a basic unit of meaning, and the headwords of a dictionary are all lexemes.[1] Put more technically, a lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of forms taken by a single word. For example, in the terminology language, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, conventionally written as RUN.[2] A related concept is the lemma (or citation form), which is a particular form of a lexeme that is chosen by convention to represent a canonical form of a lexeme
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Quran Translations
Translations of the Qur'an are interpretations of the scripture of Islam
Islam
in languages other than Arabic. Qur'an was originally written in the Arabic language
Arabic language
and has been translated into most major African, Asian and European languages.[1]Contents1 Islamic theology 2 History2.1 European languages2.1.1 Latin 2.1.2 Modern languages 2.1.3 French Language 2.1.4 Spanish 2.1.5 English2.2 Asian languages2.2.1 Urdu 2.2.2 Bengali 2.2.3 Hindi
Hindi
and Gujarati 2.2.4 Tamil 2.2.5 Turkish 2.2.6 Japanese 2.2.7 Chinese 2.2.8 Indonesian languages 2.2.9 Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages2.3 African languages 2.4 Esperanto3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksIslamic theology[edit] Further information: Islamic theology Translation of the Qur'an has always been a problematic and difficult issue in Islamic theology
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Analytic Language
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence). For example, in English the phrase "The cat chases the ball" conveys the fact that the cat is acting on the ball analytically via word order. This can be contrasted to synthetic languages that rely heavily on inflections to convey word relationships (e.g. the phrases "The cat chases the ball" and "The cat chased the ball" convey different time frames via changing the form of the word chase). Most languages are not purely analytic but many rely primarily on analytic syntax. Typically analytic languages have a low morpheme-per-word ratio, especially with respect to inflectional morphemes
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Synthetic Language
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language. This linguistic classification is largely independent of morpheme-usage classifications (such as fusional, agglutinative, etc.), although there is a common tendency for agglutinative languages to exhibit synthetic properties.Contents1 Synthetic and analytic languages 2 Examples 3 Forms of synthesis3.1 Derivational synthesis 3.2 Relational synthesis4 Degrees of synthesis4.1 More analytic 4.2 Rather analytic 4.3 Rather synthetic 4.4 Very synthetic 4.5 Polysynthetic 4.6 Oligosynthetic5 See also 6 External linksSynthetic and analytic languages[edit] Synthetic languages compose (synthesize) multiple concepts into each word, while analytic languages break up (analyze) concepts into separate words
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Morpheme
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology. A morpheme is not identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is freestanding. When a morpheme stands by itself, it is considered as a root because it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a grammatical function (e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural).[1] Every word comprises one or more morphemes.Contents1 Classification of morphemes1.1 Free and bound morphemes1.1.1 Classification of bound morphemes1.1.1.1 Derivational morphemes 1.1.1.2 Inflectional morphemes1.2 Allomorphs 1.3 Zero morphemes/null morphemes 1.4 Content vs
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Transliteration
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Language Localisation
Language localisation
Language localisation
(or localization, see spelling differences) is the process of adapting a product that has been previously translated into multiple languages to a specific country or region (from Latin locus (place) and the English term locale, "a place where something happens or is set").[1] It is the second phase of a larger process of product translation and cultural adaptation (for specific countries, regions or groups) to account for differences in distinct markets, a process known as internationalisation and localisation. Language localisation
Language localisation
differs from translation activity because it involves a comprehensive study of the target culture in order to correctly adapt the product to local needs
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Game Localization
Video game
Video game
localization is the preparation of video game software and hardware for sale in a new region or country. Although translating the text is a large part of localization, the process includes any changes made to a game, including altering art assets, creating new packaging and manuals, recording new audio, transforming hardware, cutting out whole portions of the game due to differing cultural sensitivities, and even adding sections to replace cut content. The decision to localize a game relies heavily on economic factors, such as the potential profits that could be made in a new country.[1] As such, the process is usually undertaken either by the game developers themselves or by a third-party translating company, though unauthorized fan localizations can occur if a translation is poor quality or if a game is not going to be released in a specific language
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