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List Of Fossil Sites
This list of fossil sites is a worldwide list of localities known well for the presence of fossils. Some entries in this list are notable for a single, unique find, while others are notable for the large number of fossils found there. Many of the entries in this list are considered Lagerstätten (sedimentary deposits that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues). Lagerstätten are indicated by a note ([Note 1]) in the noteworthiness column. Fossils may be found either associated with a geological formation or at a single geographic site. Geological formations consist of rock that was deposited during a specific period of time. They usually extend for large areas, and sometimes there are different important sites in which the same formation is exposed. Such sites may have separate entries if they are considered to be more notable than the formation as a whole
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Evolution Of Nervous Systems
The evolution of nervous systems dates back to the first development of nervous systems in animals (or metazoans). Neurons developed as specialized electrical signaling cells in multicellular animals, adapting the mechanism of action potentials present in motile single-celled and colonial eukaryotes. Simple nerve nets seen in animals like cnidaria evolved first, followed by nerve cords in bilateral animals – ventral nerve cords in invertebrates and dorsal nerve cords supported by a notochord in chordates
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Evolution Of Birds
The evolution of birds began in the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period, with the earliest birds derived from a clade of theropoda dinosaurs named Paraves.[1] Birds are categorized as a biological class, Aves. For more than a century, the small theropod dinosaur Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx
lithographica from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
period was considered to have been the earliest bird. Modern phylogenies place birds in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. According to the current consensus, Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, together are the sole living members of an unranked "reptile" clade, the Archosauria
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Evolution Of Flagella
The evolution of flagella is of great interest to biologists because the three known varieties of flagella (eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal) each represent a sophisticated cellular structure that requires the interaction of many different systems.Contents1 Eukaryotic flagellum1.1 Endogenous, autogenous and direct filiation models 1.2 Symbiotic/endosymbiotic/exogenous models2 Bacterial flagellum2.1 Eubacterial flagellum3 Archaeal flagellum 4 Further research 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEukaryotic flagellum[edit] There are two competing groups of models for the evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic flagellum (referred to as cilium below to distinguish it from its bacterial counterpart)
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Evolution Of Hair
Hair
Hair
is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair
Hair
is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair
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Evolution Of Sirenians
Sirenia
Sirenia
is the order of placental mammals which comprises modern "sea cows" (manatees and the Dugong) and their extinct relatives. They are the only extant herbivorous marine mammals and the only group of herbivorous mammals to have become completely aquatic. Sirenians are thought to have a 50-million-year-old fossil record (early Eocene-recent)
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Mosaic Evolution
Mosaic evolution
Mosaic evolution
(or modular evolution) is the concept that evolutionary change takes place in some body parts or systems without simultaneous changes in other parts.[1] Another definition is the "evolution of characters at various rates both within and between species".[2]408 Its place in evolutionary theory comes under long-term trends or macroevolution.[2] By its very nature, the evidence for this idea comes mainly from palaeontology. It is not claimed that this pattern is universal, but there is now a wide range of examples from many different taxa. Some examples:Hominid evolution: the early evolution of bipedalism in Australopithecines, and its modification of the pelvic girdle took place well before there was any significant change in the skull, or brain size.[3][4] Archaeopteryx
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Evolution Of Reptiles
Reptiles
Reptiles
arose about 310–320 million years ago during the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period. Reptiles, in the traditional sense of the term, are defined as animals that have scales or scutes, lay land-based hard-shelled eggs, and possess ectothermic metabolisms. So defined, the group is paraphyletic, excluding endothermic animals like birds and mammals that are descended from early reptiles. A definition in accordance with phylogenetic nomenclature, which rejects paraphyletic groups, includes birds while excluding mammals and their synapsid ancestors. So defined, Reptilia is identical to Sauropsida. Though lots of reptiles today are apex predators, many examples of apex reptiles have existed in the past
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Evolution Of Sexual Reproduction
The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.[1][2][3] There are a few species which have secondarily lost the ability to reproduce sexually, such as Bdelloidea, and some plants and animals that routinely reproduce asexually (by apomixis and parthenogenesis) without entirely losing sex. The evolution of sex contains two related, yet distinct, themes: its origin and its maintenance. The maintenance of sexual reproduction in a highly competitive world has long been one of the major mysteries of biology given that asexual reproduction can reproduce much more quickly because 50% of offspring from sexual reproduction are males, unable to produce offspring themselves. Since hypotheses for the origins of sex are difficult to test experimentally (outside of evolutionary computation), most current work has focused on the maintenance of sexual reproduction
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Butterfly Evolution
Butterfly
Butterfly
evolution is the origin and diversification of butterflies through geologic time and over a large portion of the Earth's surface. The earliest known butterfly fossils are from the mid Eocene
Eocene
epoch, between 40-50 million years ago.[1][dubious – discuss] Their development is closely linked to the evolution of flowering plants, since both adult butterflies and caterpillars feed on flowering plants. Of the 220,000 species of Lepidoptera, about 45,000 species are butterflies, which probably evolved from moths
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Evolution Of Multicellularity
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.[1] All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[2] Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony
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Evolution Of Cephalopods
The cephalopods have a long geological history, with the first nautiloids found in late Cambrian
Cambrian
strata,[1] and purported stem-group representatives present in the earliest Cambrian
Cambrian
lagerstätten.[2] The class developed during the middle Cambrian, and underwent pulses of diversification during the Ordovician
Ordovician
period[3] to become diverse and dominant in the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and Mesozoic
Mesozoic
seas. Small shelly fossils such as Tommotia
Tommotia
were once interpreted as early cephalopods, but today these tiny fossils are recognized as sclerites of larger animals,[4] and the earliest accepted cephalopods date to the Middle Cambrian Period
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Evolution Of Cetaceans
The evolutionary history of cetaceans is thought to have occurred in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
from even-toed ungulates 50 million years ago, over a period of at least 15 million years. Cetaceans are fully aquatic marine mammals belonging to the order Artiodactyla, and branched off from other artiodactyls around 50 mya (million years ago). Cetaceans are thought to have evolved during the Eocene
Eocene
or earlier, sharing a closest common ancestor with hippopotamuses. Being mammals, they surface to breathe air; they have 5 finger bones (even-toed) in their fins; they nurse their young; and, despite their fully aquatic life style, they retained many skeletal features from their terrestrial ancestors
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Evolution Of Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs evolved within a single lineage of archosaurs 232-234 Ma (million years ago) in the Ladinian
Ladinian
age, the latter part of the middle Triassic. Dinosauria
Dinosauria
is a well-supported clade, present in 98% of bootstraps. It is diagnosed by many features including loss of the postfrontal on the skull and an elongate deltopectoral crest on the humerus.[1] In March 2017, scientists reported a new way of classifying the dinosaur family tree, based on newer and more evidence than available earlier. According to the new classification, the original dinosaurs, arising 200 million years ago, were small, two-footed omnivorous animals with large grasping hands
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Evolution Of Plants
The evolution of plants has resulted in widely varying levels of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through bryophytes, lycopods, and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today. While many of the groups which appeared earlier continue to thrive, as exemplified by algal dominance in marine environments, more recently derived groups have also displaced previously ecologically dominant ones, e.g. the ascendance of flowering plants over gymnosperms in terrestrial environments.[6]:498 Evidence for the appearance of the first land plants occurs in the Ordovician, around 450 million years ago, in the form of fossil spores.[7] Land plants began to diversify in the Late Silurian, from around 430 million years ago, and the results of their diversification are displayed in remarkable detail in an early Devonian
Devonian
fossil assemblage from the Rhynie chert
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Evolution Of Fungi
The evolution of fungi has been going on since fungi diverged from other life around 1.5 billion years ago, (Wang et al., 1999)[1] with the glomaleans branching from the "higher fungi" at ~570 million years ago, according to DNA analysis. (Schüssler et al., 2001; Tehler et al., 2000)[1] Fungi probably colonized the land during the Cambrian, over 500 million years ago, (Taylor & Osborn, 1996)[1] but terrestrial fossils only become uncontroversial and common during the Devonian, 400 million years ago.[1] Early fungi[edit] A rich diversity of fungi is known from the lower Devonian
Devonian
Rhynie chert; an earlier record is absent. Since fungi do not biomineralise, they do not readily enter the fossil record; there are only three claims of early fungi
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