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List Of Common Chinese Surnames
These are LISTS OF THE MOST COMMON CHINESE SURNAMES in China (People's Republic of China), Taiwan
Taiwan
(Republic of China), and the Chinese diaspora overseas as provided by authoritative government or academic sources. Chinese names also form the basis for many common Vietnamese , Korean , and Japanese surnames in both translation and transliteration into those languages. The conception of China
China
as consisting of the "old 100 families " (Chinese : 老百姓; pinyin : Lǎo Bǎi Xìng; literally: "Old Hundred Surnames") is an ancient and traditional one, the most notable tally being the Song -era Hundred Family Surnames (Chinese : 百家姓; pinyin : Bǎi Jiā Xìng)
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Chinese Character
CHINESE CHARACTERS are logograms used in the writing of Chinese , Japanese , Korean and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese , they are called HàNZì (simplified Chinese : 汉字; traditional Chinese : 漢字). They have been adapted to write a number of other languages, including Japanese , where they are known as _kanji _ (漢字); Korean , where they are known as _hanja _ (漢字); and Vietnamese , in a system known as _chữ Nôm _. Collectively, they are known as CJK CHARACTERS . In English, they are sometimes called HAN CHARACTERS. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia , and historic use throughout the Sinosphere , Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world by number of users
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Chinese Surname
CHINESE SURNAMES are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China , Hong Kong , Macau , Malaysia , Taiwan , Korea , Singapore , Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely _xing_ (Chinese : 姓; pinyin : _xìng_) or LINEAGE NAMES, and _shi_ (Chinese : 氏; pinyin : _shì_) or CLAN NAMES. Chinese family names are patrilineal , passed from father to children. (In cases of adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname.) Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous . The colloquial expressions _laobaixing_ (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and _bǎixìng_ (百姓, lit
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower
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Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia . Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN. The island of Taiwan , formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning , the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty , the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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Chinese Diaspora
Waves of CHINESE EMIGRATION (also known as the CHINESE DIASPORA) have happened throughout history. The mass emigration known as the Chinese diaspora, which occurred from the 19th century to 1949, was mainly caused by wars and starvation in mainland China
China
, invasion from various foreign countries, as well as the problems resulting from political corruption. Most immigrants were illiterate peasants and manual labourers, called "coolies " (Chinese : 苦力; pinyin : kǔ lì; literally: "Hard Labour"), who emigrated to work in countries such as the Americas
Americas
, Australia
Australia
, South Africa
South Africa
, and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. According to Lynn Pan 's book Sons of the Yellow Emperor, the Chinese coolie emigration began after slavery was abolished throughout the British possessions
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Chinese Name
CHINESE PERSONAL NAMES are names used by those from mainland China , Hong Kong , Macau , Taiwan , and the Chinese diaspora overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences. Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as XING (姓, _xìng_), which comes first and is usually but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called MING (名, _míng_), which is nearly always mono- or disyllabic. Prior to the 20th century, educated Chinese also utilized a "courtesy name " or "style name" called ZI (字, _zì_) by which they were known among those outside of their family and closest friends
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Baixing
BAIXING (Chinese : 百姓; pinyin : bǎixìng; literally: "hundred surnames" or LAO BAIXING (Chinese : 老百姓; literally: "old hundred surnames") is a term in Chinese meaning "the people", or "commoners". The word lao (Chinese : 老; literally: "old") is often added before "baixing" to give the term a more affectionate tone. Chinese family names are patrilineal , passed from father to children. Chinese women, after marriage, typically retain their birth surname. Historically, however, only Chinese men possessed xìng (Chinese : 姓; literally: "family name"), in addition to shì (Chinese : 氏; literally: "clan"); the women had only the latter, and took on their husband's xìng after marriage. CONTENTS * 1 Legendary origin * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LEGENDARY ORIGIN This section's TONE OR STYLE MAY NOT REFLECT THE ENCYCLOPEDIC TONE USED ON. See's guide to writing better articles for suggestions
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Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang
Zhou Youguang
, based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government
Chinese government
in 1958 and revised several times
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Song Dynasty
The SONG DYNASTY (Chinese : 宋朝; pinyin : _Sòng cháo_; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period , coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy . This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder , as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass . The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. During the NORTHERN SONG (Chinese : 北宋; 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng
Kaifeng
) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China
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