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List Of Orthodontic Functional Appliances
This is a comprehensive list of functional appliances that are used in the field of orthodontics. The functional appliances can be divided into fixed and removable. The fixed functional appliances have to be bonded to the teeth by an Orthodontist in their practice. A removable functional appliance does not need to be bonded on the teeth and can be removed by the patient. A removal appliance is usually used by patients who have high degree of compliance with their orthodontic treatment. Fixed appliances are able to produce very accurate movement in the teeth Both fixed and removable functional appliances can be used to correct a malocclusion in 3 planes of spaces: Anterior-Posterior, Vertical and Transverse. In the Anterior-Posterior dimension, appliances such as Class II and Class III are used. Appliances used in transverse dimension are utilized to expand either the maxillary or the mandibular arch
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Lingual Braces
Lingual braces are one of the many types of the fixed orthodontic treatment appliances available to patients needing orthodontics. They involve attaching the orthodontic brackets on the inner sides of the teeth
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Tongue Thrust
Tongue thrust (also called reverse swallow or immature swallow) is the common name of orofacial muscular imbalance, a human behavioral pattern in which the tongue protrudes through the anterior incisors during swallowing, speech, and while the tongue is at rest. Nearly all infants exhibit a swallowing pattern involving tongue protrusion, but by six months of age most lose this reflex allowing for the ingestion of solid foods. Since 1958, the term "tongue thrust" has been described and discussed in speech and dental publications by many writers. Many school-age children have tongue thrust. For example, according to recent literature, as many as 67–95 percent of children 5–8 years old exhibit tongue thrust, which may be associated with or contributing to an orthodontic or speech problem. Up to the age of four, there is a possibility that the child will outgrow tongue thrust
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Special
Special or the specials or variation, may refer to:

Cephalometry
Cephalometry is the study and measurement of the head, usually the human head, especially by medical imaging such as radiography. Craniometry, the measurement of the cranium (skull), is a large subset of cephalometry. Cephalometry also has a history in Phrenology, which is the study of personality and character as well as Physiognomy, which is the study of facial features. Cephalometry as applied in a comparative anatomy context informs biological anthropology
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Dentition Analysis
Dentition analyses are systems of tooth and jaw measurement used in orthodontics to understand arch space and predict any malocclusion (mal-alignment of the teeth and the bite). Example systems of dentition analysis are listed below.

Standard Anatomical Position
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, and because appendages (arms, legs, tentacles, etc.) can change position with respect to the main body, it is important that anatomical terms of location refer to the organism when it is in its standard anatomical position. Thus, all descriptions are with respect to the organism in its standard anatomical position, even when the organism in question has appendages in another position. However, a straight position is assumed when describing the proximo-distal axis
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Tooth Ankylosis
Tooth ankylosis is the pathological fusing of cementum or dentine of a root to the alveolar bone 1
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Openbite
Open bite is a type of orthodontic malocclusion which has been estimated to occur in 0.6% of the people in the United States. This type of malocclusion has no vertical overlap or contact between the anterior incisors
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Prognathism
Prognathism is the positional relationship of the mandible or maxilla to the skeletal base where either of the jaws protrudes beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the coronal plane of the skull. In general dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery and orthodontics, this is assessed clinically or radiographically (cephalometrics). The word prognathism derives from Greek pro ("forward") and γνάθος gnáthos ("jaw")
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Maxillary Hypoplasia
Maxillary hypoplasia is an underdevelopment of the maxillary bones, which produces midfacial retrusion and creates the illusion of protuberance (jutting forward) of the lower jaw. It is associated with Crouzon syndrome, Angelman syndrome, as well as fetal alcohol syndrome. It can also be associated with Cleft lip and cleft palate
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