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List Of Orthodontic Functional Appliances
This is a comprehensive list of functional appliances that are used in the field of orthodontics. The functional appliances can be divided into fixed and removable. The fixed functional appliances have to be bonded to the teeth by an Orthodontist in their practice. A removable functional appliance does not need to be bonded on the teeth and can be removed by the patient. A removal appliance is usually used by patients who have high degree of compliance with their orthodontic treatment. Fixed appliances are able to produce very accurate movement in the teeth [1] Both fixed and removable functional appliances can be used to correct a malocclusion in 3 planes of spaces: Anterior-Posterior, Vertical and Transverse. In the Anterior-Posterior dimension, appliances such as Class II and Class III are used. Appliances used in transverse dimension are utilized to expand either the maxillary or the mandibular arch
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Lingual Braces
Lingual braces are one of the many types of the fixed orthodontic treatment appliances available to patients needing orthodontics. They involve attaching the orthodontic brackets on the inner sides of the teeth. The main advantage of lingual braces is their near invisibility compared to the standard braces, which are attached on the buccal sides of the tooth.[1] Lingual braces were invented by Craven Kurz in 1976.[2]Contents1 History1.1 Generation2 Design2.1 Advantages 2.2 Disadvantages3 Treatment effects3.1 Intrusion of anterior teeth 3.2 Bite plane effect 3.3 Small interbracket distance 3.4 Bowing effects4 Types4.1 Incognito5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Craven Kurz with Jim Mulick in 1975 developed the Cruz Lingual Appliances in United States. The first patient to be treated by lingual braces was by Dr. Kurz in Beverley Hills in 1976
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Tongue Thrust
Tongue
Tongue
thrust (also called reverse swallow or immature swallow) is the common name of orofacial muscular imbalance, a human behavioral pattern in which the tongue protrudes through the anterior incisors during swallowing, speech, and while the tongue is at rest. Nearly all infants exhibit a swallowing pattern involving tongue protrusion, but by six months of age most lose this reflex allowing for the ingestion of solid foods.[1] Since 1958, the term "tongue thrust" has been described and discussed in speech and dental publications by many writers.[citation needed] Many school-age children have tongue thrust. For example, according to recent literature, as many as 67–95 percent of children 5–8 years old exhibit tongue thrust, which may be associated with or contributing to an orthodontic or speech problem. Up to the age of four, there is a possibility that the child will outgrow tongue thrust
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Cephalometry
Cephalometry
Cephalometry
is the study and measurement of the head, usually the human head, especially by medical imaging such as radiography. Craniometry, the measurement of the cranium (skull), is a large subset of cephalometry. Cephalometry
Cephalometry
also has a history in Phrenology, which is the study of personality and character as well as Physiognomy, which is the study of facial features. Cephalometry
Cephalometry
as applied in a comparative anatomy context informs biological anthropology
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Dentition Analysis
Dentition analyses are systems of tooth and jaw measurement used in orthodontics to understand arch space and predict any malocclusion (mal-alignment of the teeth and the bite).[1] Example systems of dentition analysis are listed below.Contents1 Permanent dentition (adult teeth) analysis 2 Mixed dentition analysis 3 Dental arch analysis 4 Others 5 ReferencesPermanent dentition (adult teeth) analysis[edit]Maxillary dentition (upper teeth)Pont's Analysis Linder Harth Index Korkhaus Analysis Arch Perimeter AnalysisMandibular dentition (lower teeth)Ashley Howe's Analysis Carey's AnalysisBoth Arches (upper and lower teeth)Bolton AnalysisMixed dentition analysis[edit]Moyer's Mixed Dentition Analysis Tanaka and Johnston Analysis Radiographic Analysis Ballard and Willie Analysis Huckaba's Analysis Staley Kerber Analysis Hixon and Old Father AnalysisDental arch analysis[edit]Intermolar Width - It is the d
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Little's Irregularity Index
Little's Irregularity Index is an index used in the field of Orthodontics
Orthodontics
to measure the crowding of Mandibular anterior arch. The index was first proposed by Robert M. Little in 1975 in his paper The Irregularity Index: A quantitative score of mandibular anterior alignment.[1] The index takes the anatomical contact points of anterior Incisors into account. A contact point is created by touching of edges of two different teeth. During mandibular crowding, teeth are often rotated, displaced either palatally or buccally. The Little's irregularity index measures the horizontal linear displacement of anatomic contact points of each mandibular incisor from the adjacent anatomic point and sums the five displacement together. Once summed, the value represents the degree of anterior irregularity.[2] A perfect alignment from canine to canine will yield a score of 0 on the Irregularity Index. As the crowding increases, the score will increase
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Scissor Bite
Scissor Bite is a type of bite seen in some mammals such as dogs and humans. This type of bite involves outward positioning of the upper posterior teeth and inward positioning of the lower posterior teeth. The reason for this happening is an expanded upper arch and constricted lower arch.[1][2] Humans[edit] In humans, a scissor bite does have any significant influence on the facial profile. However, the chewing habits is influenced due to no contact of molars. Treatment of scissor bite may involve expansion device of the lower arch, usage of cross-elastics in an orthodontic treatment.[3] A new method of using Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) has been shown to correct the scissor bite in humans.[4] References[edit]^ Jung, Min-Ho (2011-04-01). "Treatment of severe scissor bite in a middle-aged adult patient with orthodontic mini-implants". American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 139 (4 Suppl): S154–165. doi:10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.06.031
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Standard Anatomical Position
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, and because appendages (arms, legs, tentacles, etc.) can change position with respect to the main body, it is important that anatomical terms of location refer to the organism when it is in its standard anatomical position. Thus, all descriptions are with respect to the organism in its standard anatomical position, even when the organism in question has appendages in another position. However, a straight position is assumed when describing the proximo-distal axis
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Tooth Ankylosis
Tooth ankylosis is the pathological fusing of cementum or dentine of a root to the alveolar bone 1[1]. Ankylosis of teeth is uncommon, it more often occurs in deciduous teeth than permanent teeth.[2]Contents1 Diagnosis 2 Deciduous (baby) teeth 3 Permanent (adult) teeth 4 ReferencesDiagnosis[edit] Tooth ankylosis can be recognised clinically by the loss of physiological mobility, and a high P note. It may also be detected radiographically, loss of periodontal ligament space and evidence of replacement resorption. Ankylosis usually initially occurs on the labial and lingual root surfaces making radiographic detection in the early stages difficult. Early diagnosis allows the practitioner to plan for future complications. Deciduous (baby) teeth[edit] Ankylosis of deciduous teeth may rarely occur. The most commonly affected tooth is the mandibular (lower) second deciduous molar. Partial root resorption first occurs and then the tooth fuses to the bone
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Overbite
Overbite
Overbite
medically refers to the extent of vertical (superior-inferior) overlap of the maxillary central incisors over the mandibular central incisors,[1] measured relative to the incisal ridges.[2] The term overbite does not refer to a specific condition, nor is it a form of malocclusion. Rather an absent or excess overbite would be a malocclusion. Normal overbite is not measured in exact terms, but as a proportion (approximately 30–50% of the height of the mandibular incisors) and is commonly expressed as a percentage. Other terms confused with "overbite"[edit] Overbite
Overbite
is often confused with overjet, which is the distance between the maxillary anterior teeth and the mandibular anterior teeth in the anterior-posterior axis. "Overbite" may also be used commonly to refer to Class II malocclusion or retrognathia, though this usage can be considered incorrect
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Amazon Standard Identification Number
An Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier assigned by Amazon.com
Amazon.com
and its partners for product identification within the Amazon organization.[1]Usage and structure[edit] ASINs were once unique worldwide, but global marketing has changed so that ASINs are only guaranteed unique within particular marketplaces.[citation needed] Accordingly, the same product may have several ASINs, and different national sites may use a different ASIN for the same product.[citation needed] In general, ASINs are unlikely to be different between the country sites, especially if they are for a class of product where the ASIN is based on an externally defined and internationally consistent identifier, such as ISBN
ISBN
for books.[citation needed] Each product sold on Amazon.com
Amazon.com
is given a unique ASIN
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Openbite
Open bite is a type of orthodontic malocclusion which has been estimated to occur in 0.6% of the people in the United States. This type of malocclusion has no vertical overlap or contact between the anterior incisors. The prevalence varies between different populations, for instance, occurring with 16% in black people and 4% in white people.[1] The term "open bite" was coined by Carevelli in 1842.[2][clarification needed]Contents1 Causes 2 Types2.1 Anterior open bite 2.2 Posterior open bite 2.3 Skeletal open bite 2.4 Dental open bite3 Open bite correction3.1 Primary/mixed dentition3.1.1 Behavior modification 3.1.2 Tongue crib therapy 3.1.3 Blue Grass appliance 3.1.4 Vertical pull chin cup3.2 Permanent dentition3.2.1 High-Pull Headgear 3.2.2 Elastics 3.2.3 Bite blocks 3.2.4 Glossectomy 3.2.5 Orthognathic surgery4 Stability and relapse4.1 Surgery vs
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Prognathism
Prognathism
Prognathism
is the positional relationship of the mandible or maxilla to the skeletal base where either of the jaws protrudes beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the coronal plane of the skull. In general dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery and orthodontics, this is assessed clinically or radiographically (cephalometrics). The word prognathism derives from Greek pro ("forward") and γνάθος gnáthos ("jaw")
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Retrognathism
Retrognathia (or retrognathism) is a type of malocclusion which refers to an abnormal posterior positioning of the maxilla[1] or mandible,[2] particularly the mandible, relative to the facial skeleton and soft tissues.[3] A retrognathic mandible is commonly referred to as an overbite, though this terminology is not used medically. See also[edit]Micrognathism PrognathismReferences[edit]^ Chang JZ, Liu PH, Chen YJ, et al. (February 2006). "Thin-plate spline analysis of the effects of face mask treatment in children with maxillary retrognathism". J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 105 (2): 147–54. doi:10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60336-3. PMID 16477335.  ^ van Es RJ, Wittebol-Post D, Beemer FA (September 2007). "Oculodentodigital dysplasia with mandibular retrognathism and absence of syndactyly: a case report with a novel mutation in the connexin 43 gene". Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 36 (9): 858–60. doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2007.03.004
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Maxillary Hypoplasia
Maxillary hypoplasia
Maxillary hypoplasia
is an underdevelopment of the maxillary bones, which produces midfacial retrusion and creates the illusion of protuberance (jutting forward) of the lower jaw. It is associated with Crouzon syndrome, Angelman syndrome,[1] as well as fetal alcohol syndrome. It can also be associated with Cleft lip and cleft palate. Some people could develop it due to poor dental extractions.[2]Contents1 Symptoms 2 Treatment2.1 Recovery3 ReferencesSymptoms[edit] The underdevelopment of the bones in the upper jaw, which gives the middle of the face a sunken look and makes the lower jaw seem like it is sticking out, even if anatomically it is normal.[3] This makes it difficult to eat and can cause future problems for the patient, such as, Nasopharyngeal airway
Nasopharyngeal airway
restriction, which can then lead to back pain, neck pain, and numbness in the hands and arms, due to constant forward head posture
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