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List Of Secretaries Of State Of The United States
This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States . CONTENTS * 1 Secretaries of Foreign Affairs (1781–1789) * 2 List of Secretaries of State * 3 List of Secretaries of State by time in office * 4 Living former Secretaries of State * 5 Notes * 6 References SECRETARIES OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS (1781–1789) Main article: United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs LIST OF SECRETARIES OF STATE PARTIES No party (1) Federalist (3) Democratic-Republican (6) Democratic (26) Whig (5) Republican (28) STATUS Denotes acting Secretary of State NO. PORTRAIT NAME STATE OF RESIDENCE TOOK OFFICE LEFT OFFICE PRESIDENT(S) – John Jay Acting New York September 26, 1789 March 22, 1790 George Washington 1 Thomas Jefferson Virginia March 22, 1790 December 31, 1793 2 Edmund J
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Rex Tillerson
REX WAYNE TILLERSON (born March 23, 1952) is an American government official, civil engineer , and former energy executive who is the 69th and current United States Secretary of State , serving since February 1, 2017. Tillerson joined Exxon in 1975 and rose to serve as the chairman and chief executive officer (CEO) of ExxonMobil from 2006 to 2016. Tillerson began his career as an engineer and holds a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
. By 1989 he had become general manager of the Exxon USA central production division. In 1995, he became president of Exxon Yemen Inc. and Esso Exploration and Production Khorat Inc. In 2006, Tillerson was elected chairman and chief executive officer of Exxon, the world's 6th largest company by revenue. Tillerson retired from Exxon effective January 1, 2017, and was succeeded by Darren Woods . He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering . Tillerson is a longtime volunteer with the Boy Scouts of America and earned the rank of Eagle Scout . From 2010 to 2012 he was the national president of the Boy Scouts , its highest non-executive position. He is a longtime contributor to Republican campaigns, although he did not donate to Donald Trump\'s presidential campaign
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United States Department Of State
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE (DOS), often referred to as the STATE DEPARTMENT, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and leads the country in foreign policy issues. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, the State Department is responsible for the international relations of the United States , negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and represents the United States at the United Nations . The Department was created in 1789 and was the first executive department established. The Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building located at 2201 C Street, NW , a few blocks away from the White House in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The Department operates the diplomatic missions of the United States abroad and is responsible for implementing the foreign policy of the United States and U.S. diplomacy efforts. The Department is also the depositary for more than 200 multilateral treaties. The Department is led by the Secretary of State , who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet . The current Secretary of State is Rex Tillerson , beginning 1 February 2017
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President Of United States
------------------------- * HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES * Speaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R) * Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R) * Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D) * Congressional districts ------------------------- * UNITED STATES SENATE * President Mike Pence
Mike Pence
(R) * President Pro Tempore Orrin Hatch (R) * President Pro Tempore Emeritus
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John Jay
JOHN JAY (December 23 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot , diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States , signatory of the Treaty of Paris , second Governor of New York , and first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–95). Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and government officials in New York City. He became a lawyer and joined the New York Committee of Correspondence and organized opposition to British rule. He joined a conservative political faction that, fearing mob rule , sought to protect property rights and maintain the rule of law while resisting British rule. Jay served as the President of the Continental Congress (1778–79), an honorific position with little power. During and after the American Revolution , Jay was Minister (Ambassador) to Spain , a negotiator of the Treaty of Paris by which Great Britain recognized American independence, and Secretary of Foreign Affairs, helping to fashion United States foreign policy . His major diplomatic achievement was to negotiate favorable trade terms with Great Britain in the Jay Treaty in 1794. Jay, a proponent of strong, centralized government, worked to ratify the U.S. Constitution in New York in 1788 by pseudonymously writing five of _The Federalist_ Papers , along with the main authors Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
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Thomas Jefferson
THOMAS JEFFERSON (April 13 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States , serving under John Adams from 1797 to 1801. A proponent of democracy, republicanism , and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation, he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. He was a land owner and farmer. Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia . He graduated from the College of William his mother was Jane Randolph . Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of William Randolph, the plantation's owner and Jefferson's friend, who in his will had named him guardian of his children. The Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757; his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph . Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres (2,000 ha; 7.8 sq mi) of land, including Monticello . He assumed full authority over his property at age 21
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United States Presidential Line Of Succession
The UNITED STATES PRESIDENTIAL LINE OF SUCCESSION is the order in which persons may become or act as President of the United States
President of the United States
if the incumbent President becomes incapacitated , dies, resigns or is removed from office (by impeachment by the House of Representatives and subsequent conviction by the Senate). The line of succession is set by the United States Constitution and the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 as subsequently amended to include newly created cabinet offices. The succession follows the order of Vice President, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate, and then the heads of federal executive departments who form the Cabinet of the United States , which currently has fifteen members, beginning with the Secretary of State. Those heads of departments who are ineligible to act as President are also ineligible to succeed the President by succession, for example most commonly if they are not a natural-born U.S. citizen
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United States Secretary Of State
A SECRETARY or PERSONAL ASSISTANT is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills. These functions may be entirely carried out to assist one other employee or may be for the benefit of more than one. In other situations a secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members, and organizes official meetings and events. CONTENTS * 1 Duties and functions * 2 Etymology * 3 Origin * 4 Modern developments * 5 Contemporary employment * 6 Training by country * 6.1 Belgium * 6.2 United States * 7 Executive assistant * 7.1 Civilian * 7.2 Military * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS _ This section POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (December 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_A secretary, typically known as _personal assistant_ (pa) or an _administrative assistant_, has many administrative duties. The title _secretary_ is not used as often as in decades past, and responsibilities have evolved to much more advance skill set such as mastering Microsoft Office applications; Word, PowerPoint, and Excel to name a few
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United States Secretary Of Foreign Affairs
The UNITED STATES SECRETARY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS was a position that existed in the United States government from January 10, 1781, to September 15, 1789. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Secretaries for Foreign Affairs * 1.2 Acting United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs * 1.3 Acting United States Secretary of State * 2 References HISTORYThe Articles of Confederation permitted the Confederation Congress to select "such committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States." On January 10, 1780, the Confederation Congress created the Department of Foreign Affairs. On August 10, 1781, Congress selected Robert R. Livingston , a delegate from New York , as the first Secretary for Foreign Affairs. Livingston was unable to take office until October 20, 1781. He served until June 4, 1783 when he was succeeded by John Jay , who served until March 4, 1789, when the government under the Articles of Confederation gave way to the government under the Constitution . SECRETARIES FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS NO. PORTRAIT NAME STATE OF RESIDENCE TOOK OFFICE LEFT OFFICE 1 Robert R
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Independent (politician)
An INDEPENDENT or NONPARTISAN POLITICIAN is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party . There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent. * Independents may support policies which are different from those of the major political parties. * In some parts of the world electors may have a tradition of electing independents, so standing for a political party is a disadvantage. * In some countries (including Russia
Russia
) a political party can only be registered if it has a huge number of members in more than one region, but in certain regions only a minority of electors support the major parties. * In some countries (including Kuwait
Kuwait
), political parties are unlawful and all candidates thus stand as independents. Some independent politicians may be associated with a political party, perhaps as former members of it, or else have views that align with it, but choose not to stand in its name, or are unable to do so because the party in question has selected another candidate. Others may belong to or support a political party at the national level but believe they should not formally represent it (and thus be subject to its policies) at another level. In running for public office, independents sometimes choose to form a party or alliance with other independents, and may formally register their party or alliance
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Federalist Party
The FEDERALIST PARTY was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to 1816; its remnants lasted into the 1820s. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain
Great Britain
, as well as opposition to revolutionary France. The party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican
Democratic-Republican
opposition led by Thomas Jefferson . The Federalist Party
Federalist Party
came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton 's fiscal policies. These supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, which was committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government. The only Federalist president was John Adams ; although George Washington
George Washington
was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, he remained officially non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank, tariffs, and good relations with Great Britain
Great Britain
as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and successfully argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution
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Democratic-Republican Party
The DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison
James Madison
in 1791–93 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton , who was then Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. The new party controlled the presidency and Congress, as well as most states, from 1801 to 1825, during the First Party System . It began in 1791 as one faction in Congress, and included many politicians who had been opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves _Republicans_ after their ideology, Republicanism . They distrusted the Federalist commitment to republicanism. The party splintered in 1824 into the Jacksonian movement (which became the Democratic Party in 1828) and the short-lived National Republican Party (later succeeded by the Whig Party ). The term "Democratic-Republican" is used especially by modern political scientists for the first "REPUBLICAN PARTY" (as opposed to the modern Republican Party founded in 1854). It is also known as the JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS. Historians typically use the title "Republican Party"
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Democratic Party (united States)
The DEMOCRATIC PARTY is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States
United States
, along with the Republican Party . Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison
James Madison
's Democratic-Republican Party , the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
, making it the world's oldest active party. The Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservativism and economic liberalism , while—especially in the rural South —populism was its leading characteristic. In 1912 , Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party , leading to a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party and Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has also promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice . Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists , with a smaller minority of conservative Democrats . The party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality , along with the welfare state . It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy
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Whig Party (United States)
The WHIG PARTY was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four US presidents belonged to the party while in office. It emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonians, pulling together former members of the National Republican (the successor of the Democratic-Republican Party) and Anti-Masonic Parties . It had distant roots in the upscale traditions of the Federalist Party . Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System
Second Party System
from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s. It originally formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(in office 1829–37) and his Democratic Party . In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of the US Congress over the Presidency and favored a program of modernization , banking, and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing. It appealed to entrepreneurs, planters, reformers and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants, and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal . Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The underlying political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not directly related to the British Whig party
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Republican Party (united States)
_Majority_: Conservatism Economic liberalism Fiscal conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Social conservatism Federalism _Factions_: Fusionism Libertarianism Neoconservatism Paleoconservatism Right-wing populism EUROPEAN AFFILIATION Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe (regional partner) INTERNATIONAL AFFILIATION International Democrat Union REGIONAL AFFILIATION Asia Pacific Democrat Union COLORS Red SEATS IN THE SENATE 52 / 100 SEATS IN THE HOUSE 241 / 435 GOVERNORSHIPS 34 / 50 STATE UPPER CHAMBER SEATS 1,158 / 1,972 STATE LOWER CHAMBER SEATS 3,047 / 5,411 TERRITORIAL GOVERNORSHIPS 2 / 6 TERRITORIAL UPPER CHAMBER SEATS 12 / 97 TERRITORIAL LOWER CHAMBER SEATS 14 / 91 WEBSITE www.gop.com * Politics of United States * Political parties * Elections The REPUBLICAN PARTY, commonly referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for GRAND OLD PARTY), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States
United States
, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party . The party is named after republicanism , the dominant value during the American Revolution
American Revolution

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Acting (law)
In law, when someone is said to be ACTING in a position it can mean one of three things. * The position has not yet been formally created. * The person is only occupying the position temporarily, to ensure continuity. * The person does not have a mandate .The term "acting" is often used in one of these senses to refer to a temporary occupant of an office in government. An "acting" official holds office to ensure both the stability and continuity of his department will continue despite the absence of a formal leader. For example, if the U.S. Secretary of Defense died suddenly in office, the U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense would take over, but would only be "acting" in the position, and would not formally hold the office, unless nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate , as required by the Constitution. Acting officials typically play a caretaker role, as it is usually considered questionable for someone to exercise full authority in a very activist way without having been specifically hired or elected to the office. "Acting for" has the same basic meaning as "acting", except it indicates that the original occupant of the position still formally holds power. For example, in 2006 when Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon had a severe stroke, Deputy Prime Minister Ehud Olmert assumed power on the basis that he was "acting for" the incapacitated Sharon
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