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List Of Religions And Spiritual Traditions
Religion
Religion
is a collection of cultural systems, beliefs and world views that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who simply called it a "cultural system."[1] A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category."[2] Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature
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Mythology
Mythology
Mythology
refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people[1] or to the study of such myths.[2] A folklore genre, myth is a feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato
Plato
and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists
Neoplatonists
and later revived by Renaissance
Renaissance
mythographers
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Local Church
A church is a Christian
Christian
religious organization or congregation or community that meets in a particular location. Many are formally organized, with constitutions and by-laws, maintain offices, are served by clergy or lay leaders, and, in nations where this is permissible, often seek non-profit corporate status.[1] Local churches often relate with, affiliate with, or consider themselves to be constitutive parts of denominations, which are also called churches in many traditions
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Religious Law
Religious law
Religious law
refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions
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Ethics
Ethics
Ethics
or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.[1] The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos), meaning 'habit, custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.[2] Ethics
Ethics
seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime
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Morality
Morality
Morality
(from Latin: mōrālis, lit. 'manner, character, proper behavior') is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.[1] Morality
Morality
can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal.[2] Morality
Morality
may also be specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes moral ontology, which is the origin of morals; and moral epistemology, which is the knowledge of morals. Different systems of expressing morality have been proposed, including deontological ethical systems which adhere to a set of established rules, and normative ethical systems which consider the merits of actions themselves
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Origin Of Life
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,[3][4][5][note 1] is the natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.[3][4][6][7] The transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event but a gradual process of increasing complexity.[8][9][10][11] Abiogenesis
Abiogenesis
is studied through a combination of paleontology, chemistry, and extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms, and aims to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life.[12] The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological,[13] with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three,[14] as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth
Earth
today
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Meaning Of Life
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general. Many other related questions include: "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", or "What is the purpose of existence?" There have been a large number of proposed answers to these questions from many different cultural and ideological backgrounds. The search for life's meaning has produced much philosophical, scientific, theological, and metaphysical speculation throughout history. Different people and cultures believe different things for the answer to this question. The meaning of life as we perceive it is derived from philosophical and religious contemplation of, and scientific inquiries about existence, social ties, consciousness, and happiness
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Sacred History
If Wiktionary has a definition already, change this tag to TWCleanup2 or else consider a soft redirect to Wiktionary by replacing the text on this page with Wi . If Wiktionary does not have the definition yet, consider moving the whole article to Wiktionary by replacing this tag with the template Copy to Wiktionary . This template will no longer automatically categorize articles as candidates to move to Wiktionary.Sacred history is the parts of the Torah narrative on the boundary of historicity, especially the Moses and Exodus stories which can be argued to have a remote historical nucleus without any positive evidence to the effect.[1] In a wider sense, the term is used for all of the historical books of the Bible, i.e. Books of Kings, Ezra-Nehemiah and Books of Chronicles, spanning the period of the 10th to 5th centuries BC, and by extension also of the later books such as Maccabees and the books of the New Testament
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Tradition
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.[1][2] Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers' wigs or military officers' spurs), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin
Latin
tradere literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines also use the word in a variety of ways. One way tradition is used more simply, often in academic work but elsewhere also, is to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed
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Symbol
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Human Nature
Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.[1][2][3][4] The questions of whether there truly are fixed characteristics, what these natural characteristics are, and what causes them are among the oldest and most important questions in philosophy and science. The concept of human nature is traditionally contrasted not only with unusual human characteristics, but also with characteristics which are derived from specific cultures, and upbringings. The "nature versus nurture" debate is a well-known modern discussion about human nature in the natural science. These questions have particularly important implications in economy, ethics, politics, and theology
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Clifford Geertz
University of Chicago Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New JerseyDoctoral advisor Talcott ParsonsDoctoral students George E
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World View
A world view[1] or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view. A world view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential, and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and ethics.[2] The term is a calque of the German word Weltanschauung [ˈvɛlt.ʔanˌʃaʊ.ʊŋ] ( listen), composed of Welt ('world') and Anschauung ('view' or 'outlook').[3] The German word is also used in English. It is a concept fundamental to German philosophy
German philosophy
and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. Additionally, it refers to the framework of ideas and beliefs forming a global description through which an individual, group or culture watches and interprets the world and interacts with it. Worldview remains a confused and confusing concept in English, used very differently by linguists and sociologists
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Cosmos
The cosmos (UK: /ˈkɒzmɒs/, US: /-moʊs/) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Cosmology2.1 Philosophical cosmology 2.2 Physical cosmology 2.3 Religious cosmology3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The philosopher Pythagoras
Pythagoras
first used the term cosmos (Ancient Greek: κόσμος) for the order of the universe.[2][3] The term became part of modern language in the 19th century when geographer–polymath
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Cultural System
A cultural system is the interaction of different elements of culture. While a cultural system is quite different from a social system, sometimes both systems together are referred to as the sociocultural system.Contents1 Social theory1.1 Action theory 1.2 System and social integration 1.3 Cultural and socio-cultural integration2 Research 3 ReferencesSocial theory[edit] A major concern in the social sciences is the problem of order. One way that social order has been theorized is according to the degree of integration of cultural and social factors. Action theory[edit] Talcott Parsons, a major figure in sociology, who was the main originator of action theory in the early 20th century, based his sociological theory of action system is built up around a general theory of society, which is codified within a cybernetic model featuring four functional imperatives: adaptation, goal-attainment, integration, and pattern maintenance
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