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List Of Religions And Spiritual Traditions
Religion is a collection of cultural systems , beliefs and world views that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes to moral values. While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz , who simply called it a "cultural system." A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives , symbols , traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality , ethics , religious laws , or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature . According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world. The word _religion_ is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith " or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours , including clerical hierarchies , a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity , regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer , holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts . Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services
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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world . Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism , which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins . The creeds further maintain that Jesus physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit , and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation , earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel ", meaning "good news"
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God ( Allah ) and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran , viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the _sunnah _, composed of accounts called _hadith _) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE). Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam , Abraham , Moses , and Jesus . As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions , Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous are punished in hell
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Bahá'í Faith
The BAHá\'í FAITH (Persian : بهائی‎‎ Bahā'i) is an Abrahamic religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people. Established by Bahá\'u\'lláh in 1863, it initially grew in the Middle East
Middle East
and now has between 5-7 million adherents, known as BAHá\'íS, spread out into most of the world's countries and territories, with the highest concentrations in India
India
and Iran
Iran
. The religion was born in Iran
Iran
, where it has faced ongoing persecutions since its inception. It grew from the mid-19th century Bábí religion , whose founder reinterpreted Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and said that God
God
would soon send a prophet in the manner of Jesus
Jesus
or Muhammad
Muhammad
. In 1863, after being banished from his native Iran
Iran
, Bahá\'u\'lláh announced that he was this prophet. He was further exiled, spending over a decade in the prison city of Akka in the Ottoman province of Syria , in what is now Israel
Israel

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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology , philosophy , mythology , Vedic yajna , Yoga , agamic rituals , and temple building , among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Agamas . Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition
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Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism
Taoism
drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists), and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the Yijing , which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures , and especially their respective practices
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Sikhism
SIKHISM (/ˈsikᵻzəm/ ), or SIKHI (Punjabi : ਸਿੱਖੀ _Sikkhī_, pronounced , from _Sikh_, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic/panentheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib , include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service , striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all , and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak , the first Guru, and the ten successive Sikh gurus . Guru Nanak established Kartarpur (Creator's town) around 1520 and gathered the original core of the Sikh Panth (community) there. After the death of the tenth Guru , Guru Gobind Singh , the Sikh scripture, Guru Granth Sahib , became the literal embodiment of the eternal, impersonal Guru , where the scripture's word serves as the spiritual guide for Sikhs. An Indian religion, Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth
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Slavic Neopaganism
CLUSTERS OF DEITIES IDENTITY AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY CRITIQUE OF MONO-IDEOLOGIES Organisation * Calendars and holidays * Volkhv priesthoodRELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS : * Native Polish Church * Rodnover Confederation * Rodzima Wiara Denominations * Assianism * Native Ukrainian National Faith * Peterburgian Vedism * Ynglism NOT STRICTLY RELATED ONES: * Ivanovism * Rerikhism * Ringing Cedars\' Anastasianism Spread * Rodnovery in Russia * Rodnovery in Ukraine
Ukraine
Sources * Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
* Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
* Historical Vedic religion * Hinduism * Siberian shamanism * Tengrism * Zoroastrianism * v * t * e The SLAVIC NATIVE FAITH, RODNOVERY, or SLAVIC NEOPAGANISM is a modern Pagan religion . Classified as a new religious movement , its practitioners harken back to the historical belief systems of the Slavic peoples of central and eastern Europe. "Rodnovery" is a widely accepted self-descriptor within the community, although there are Rodnover organisations which further characterise the religion as ORTHODOXY, OLD BELIEF, and VEDISM
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Celtic Polytheism
CELTIC POLYTHEISM, commonly known as CELTIC PAGANISM, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts , roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era , and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age. Celtic polytheism was one of a larger group of Iron Age polytheistic religions of the Indo-European family. It comprised a large degree of variation both geographically and chronologically, although "behind this variety, broad structural similarities can be detected" allowing there to be "a basic religious homogeneity" among the Celtic peoples. The Celtic pantheon consists of numerous recorded theonyms , both from Greco-Roman ethnography and from epigraphy . Among the most prominent ones are Teutatis , Taranis and Lugus . Figures from medieval Irish mythology have also been adduced by comparative mythology , interpreted as later versions of pre-Christian Insular deities
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Germanic Neopaganism
HEATHENRY, also termed HEATHENISM or GERMANIC NEOPAGANISM, is a modern Pagan religion. Classified as a new religious movement , its practitioners model their faith on the pre-Christian belief systems adhered to by the Germanic peoples of Iron Age and Early Medieval Europe . To reconstruct these past belief systems, Heathenry uses surviving historical, archaeological, and folkloric evidence as a basis, although approaches to this material vary considerably. Heathenry does not have a unified theology and is typically polytheistic , centering on a pantheon of deities from pre-Christian Germanic Europe . It adopts cosmological views from these religions, including an animistic view of the cosmos in which the natural world is imbued with spirits. The faith's deities and these spirits are honored in sacrificial rites known as blóts in which food and libations are offered to them. These are often accompanied by symbel , the act of ceremonially toasting the gods with an alcoholic beverage. Some practitioners also engage in rituals designed to induce an altered state of consciousness and visions, most notably seiðr and galdr , with the intent of gaining wisdom and advice from the deities. Although there are many solitary practitioners who follow the religion alone, members of the Heathen community often assemble in small groups, usually known as kindreds or hearths, to perform their rites in specially constructed buildings or outdoors
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Semitic Neopaganism
SEMITIC NEOPAGANISM refers to a group of religions based on or attempting to reconstruct the old religious traditions of the Semitic peoples , mostly practiced among secular Jews
Jews
in the United States
United States
. CONTENTS * 1 Jewish neopaganism in the United States
United States
* 2 In the Levant * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links JEWISH NEOPAGANISM IN THE UNITED STATESIn the United States, the notion of historical Israelite or Jewish polytheism has been popularized in the 1960s by Raphael Patai in _The Hebrew Goddess
Goddess
_, focusing on the cult of female goddesses such as the cult of Asherah in Solomon\'s Temple . During the 1970s growth of Neopaganism in the United States
United States
, a number of minor Canaanite or Israelite oriented groups emerged, mostly containing syncretistic elements from Western esotericism
Western esotericism
. Forms of Witchcraft
Witchcraft
religions inspired by the Semitic milieu, such as _Jewitchery_, may also be enclosed within the Semitic Neopagan movement. These Witchcraft
Witchcraft
groups are particularly influenced by Jewish feminism , focusing on the goddess cults of the Israelites. The most notable contemporary Levantine Neopagan group is known as Am Ha Aretz (עם הארץ, lit
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Wicca
WICCA (English: /ˈwɪkə/ ), also termed PAGAN WITCHCRAFT, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement . It was developed in England during the first half of the 20th century and was introduced to the public in 1954 by Gerald Gardner , a retired British civil servant . Wicca draws upon a diverse set of ancient pagan and 20th century hermetic motifs for its theological structure and ritual practices. Wicca has no central authority. Its traditional core beliefs, principles and practices were originally outlined in the 1940s and 1950s by Gardner and Doreen Valiente , both in published books as well as in secret written and oral teachings passed along to their initiates. There are many variations on the core structure, and the religion grows and evolves over time. It is divided into a number of diverse lineages, sects and denominations , referred to as _traditions_, each with its own organizational structure and level of centralisation . Due to its decentralized nature, there is some disagreement over what actually constitutes Wicca. Some traditions, collectively referred to as British Traditional Wicca , strictly follow the initiatory lineage of Gardner and consider the term _Wicca_ to apply only to similar traditions, but not to newer, eclectic traditions
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Kemetism
KEMETISM (also KEMETICISM; both from the Egyptian kmt or Kemet , the native name of Ancient Egypt ), also sometimes referred to as NETERISM (from nTr (Coptic noute) "deity "), or EGYPTIAN NEOPAGANISM, is the contemporary revival of Ancient Egyptian religion and related expressions of religion in classical and late antiquity, emerging during the 1970s. A Kemetic is one who follows Kemetism. There are several main groups, each of which take a different approach to their beliefs, ranging from eclectic to reconstructionistic . However, all of these can be identified as belonging to three strains, including reconstructed Orthodox Kemetism (adopting a philological approach, also Kemetic Orthodoxy ). CONTENTS * 1 See also * 2 Notes * 3 References * 4 External links SEE ALSO * Neopaganism * Polytheistic reconstructionism * Ancient Egyptian religion * Hermeticism * Temple of Set * List of Neopagan movements NOTES * ^ Daugherty, Michelle (2 October 2014). "Kemetism_Ancient Religions in our Modern World". Michigan State University . USA. Retrieved 18 January 2017. * ^ Harrison, PM (2012). Profane Egyptologists: The Revival and Reconstruction of Ancient Egyptian Religion
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Hellenism (religion)
HELLENISM (Greek : Ἑλληνισμός), the HELLENIC ETHNIC RELIGION (Ἑλληνικὴ ἐθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as HELLENISMOS, HELLENIC POLYTHEISM, DODEKATHEISM (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or OLYMPIANISM (Ὀλυμπιανισμός), refers to various religious movements that revive or reconstruct ancient Greek religious practices , publicly, emerging since the 1990s. The Hellenic religion is a traditional religion and way of life, revolving around the Greek Gods
Greek Gods
, primarily focused on the Twelve Olympians , and embracing ancient Hellenic values and virtues . CONTENTS* 1 Groups and self-designations * 1.1 In Greece
Greece
* 1.2 Outside Greece
Greece
* 2 Beliefs and practices * 3 Reconstructionism * 4 Revivalism * 5 Claims of continuity * 6 Political controversy * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links GROUPS AND SELF-DESIGNATIONS Ritual performed by members of the Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes . Dodekatheism originated in and is practiced in Greece
Greece
and in other countries. Leaders of the movement claimed in 2005 that there are as many as 2,000 adherents to the Hellenic tradition in Greece, with an additional 100,000 who have "some sort of interest". No official estimates exist for devotees worldwide
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