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List Of Religions And Spiritual Traditions
Religion
Religion
is a collection of cultural systems , beliefs and world views that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes to moral values. While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz , who simply called it a "cultural system." A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives , symbols , traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality , ethics , religious laws , or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature . According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world
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Morality
MORALITY (from the Latin
Latin
moralis "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality
Morality
can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy , religion or culture , or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal. Morality
Morality
may also be specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes moral ontology , or the origin of morals, as well as moral epistemology , or knowledge of morals. Different systems of expressing morality have been proposed, including deontological ethical systems which adhere to a set of established rules, and normative ethical systems which consider the merits of actions themselves
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Ethics
ETHICS or MORAL PHILOSOPHY is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct . The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos ), meaning 'habit , custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics , each concerned with values . As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions "What is the best way for people to live?" and "What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances?" In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil , right and wrong , virtue and vice , justice and crime . As a field of intellectual enquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology , descriptive ethics , and value theory
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Religious Law
RELIGIOUS LAW refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions . Examples include Christian
Christian
canon law , Islamic
Islamic
sharia , Jewish
Jewish
halakha , and Hindu law . The two most prominent systems, canon law and sharia, differ from other religious laws in that canon law is the codification of Catholic , Anglican and Orthodox law as in civil law , while sharia derives many of its laws from juristic precedent and reasoning by analogy (as in a common law tradition)
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Origin Of Life
ABIOGENESIS ( British English
British English
: /ˌeɪˌbaɪoʊˈdʒɛnɪsɪs, -ˌbaɪə-/ , /-ˌbiːoʊ-, -ˌbiːə-/ ), BIOPOIESIS, or informally the ORIGIN OF LIFE, is the natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds . On Earth, the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event but a gradual process of increasing complexity. Abiogenesis is studied through a combination of paleontology , chemistry , and extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms , and aims to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life on Earth. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical , chemical , or biological , with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth
Earth
today
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Meaning Of Life
The MEANING OF LIFE, or the ANSWER TO THE QUESTION "WHAT IS THE MEANING OF LIFE?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general. Many other related questions include "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", or "What is the purpose of existence?" There have been a large number of proposed answers to these questions from many different cultural and ideological backgrounds. The search for life's meaning has produced much philosophical , scientific , theological , and metaphysical speculation throughout history. Different people and cultures believe different things for the answer to this question. The meaning of life as we perceive it is derived from philosophical and religious contemplation of, and scientific inquiries about existence , social ties , consciousness , and happiness
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Symbol
A SYMBOL is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers . Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space
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Tradition
A TRADITION is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers\' wigs or military officers' spurs ), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin
Latin
tradere literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines also use the word in a variety of ways. One way tradition is used more simply, often in academic work but elsewhere also, is to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed
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Sacred History
EUHEMERUS (also spelled EUEMEROS or EVEMERUS; Ancient Greek : Εὐήμερος Euhēmeros, "happy; prosperous"; late 4th century BC), was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander
Cassander
, the king of Macedon . Euhemerus' birthplace is disputed, with Messina
Messina
in Sicily
Sicily
as the most probable location, while others champion Chios
Chios
or Tegea
Tegea
. The philosophy attributed to and named for Euhemerus, euhemerism , holds that many mythological tales can be attributed to historical persons and events, the accounts of which have become altered and exaggerated over time. Euhemerus’s work combined elements of fiction and political utopianism. In the ancient world he was considered an atheist
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Lifestyle (sociology)
The term lifestyle can denote the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture. The term was introduced by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler with the meaning of "a person's basic character as established early in childhood" , for example in his 1929 book "The Case of Miss R.". The term was introduced in the 1950s as a derivative of that of style in modernist art , and the broader sense of "way or style of living" has been documented since 1961. The term refers to a combination of determining intangible or tangible factors. Tangible factors relate specifically to demographic variables, i.e. an individual's demographic profile, whereas intangible factors concern the psychological aspects of an individual such as personal values, preferences, and outlooks. A rural environment has different lifestyles compared to an urban metropolis . Location is important even within an urban scope
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Cosmos
The COSMOS (UK : /ˈkɒzmɒs/ , US : /ˈkɒzmoʊs/ ) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos . The philosopher Pythagoras
Pythagoras
used the term cosmos ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κόσμος) for the order of the universe, but the term was not part of modern language until the 19th century geographer and polymath, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, resurrected the use of the word from the ancient Greek, assigned it to his multi-volume treatise, Kosmos , which influenced modern and somewhat holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity
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Shrine
A SHRINE (Latin : scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French : escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity , ancestor , hero , martyr , saint , daemon , or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped . Shrines often contain idols , relics , or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which votive offerings are made is called an altar . Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity
Christianity
, Islam
Islam
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Chinese folk religion , Shinto , and Asatru as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches , temples , cemeteries , or in the home, although portable shrines are also found in some cultures
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Liturgy
LITURGY is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy is a communal response to and participation in, the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication or repentance. Ritualization may be associated with life events such as birth, coming of age , marriage, sex and death. It thus forms the basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other hygienic practices are all considered liturgical activities. Technically speaking, liturgy is a subset of ritual. When ritual is undertaken to participate in a divine act or assist a divine action, it is liturgy. If the ritual does not have this purpose it is not liturgy but only ritual
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Sermon
A SERMON is an oration , lecture , or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy . Sermons address a Biblical, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon often include exposition, exhortation and practical application. In Christianity, a sermon is usually delivered in a place of worship from an elevated architectural feature, variously known as a pulpit , a lectern , or an ambo . The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from Old French , which in turn came from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". The word can mean "conversation", which could mean that early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, and that only later did it come to mean a monologue
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Deity
A DEITY (/ˈdiː.ᵻti/ ( listen ) or /ˈdeɪ.ᵻti/ ( listen )) is a natural or supernatural being considered divine or sacred . The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion)", or anything revered as divine. C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". A male deity is a GOD , while a female deity is a G