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List Of North American Broadcast Station Classes
This is a list of broadcast station classes applicable in much of North America under international agreements between the United States, Canada and Mexico. Effective radiated power
Effective radiated power
(ERP) and height above average terrain (HAAT) are listed unless otherwise noted. All radio and television stations within 320 kilometers (about 200 miles) of the US-Canada or US-Mexico border
US-Mexico border
must get approval by both the domestic and foreign agency
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Effective Radiated Power
Effective radiated power
Effective radiated power
(ERP), synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency (RF) power, such as that emitted by a radio transmitter. It is the total power in watts that would have to be radiated by a half-wave dipole antenna to give the same radiation intensity (signal strength in watts per square meter) as the actual source at a distant receiver located in the direction of the antenna's strongest beam (main lobe). ERP measures the combination of the power emitted by the transmitter and the ability of the antenna to direct that power in a given direction. It is equal to the input power to the antenna multiplied by the gain of the antenna
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Channel (communications)
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second. Communicating data from one location to another requires some form of pathway or medium. These pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media: cable (twisted-pair wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable) and broadcast (microwave, satellite, radio, and infrared). Cable or wire line media use physical wires of cables to transmit data and information
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Northern Mariana Islands
The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
(CNMI; Chamorro: Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch
Refaluwasch
or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States
United States
consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean
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Carrier Current
Carrier current transmission (originally called wired wireless) employs guided low-power radio signals, which are transmitted along electrical conductors. The transmissions are picked up by receivers that are either connected to, or a short distance from, the conductors. Carrier current transmission is used to send audio and telemetry to selected locations, and also for low-power broadcasting that covers a small geographical area, such as a college campus
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Low-power AM
Low-power broadcasting refers to a broadcast station operating at a low electrical power to a smaller service area than "full power" stations within the same region, but often distinguished from "micropower broadcasting" (more commonly "microbroadcasting") and broadcast translators. LPFM, LPAM and LPTV are in various levels of use across the world, varying widely based on the laws and their enforcement.Contents1 Canada 2 New Zealand 3 United Kingdom 4 United States4.1 FM radio4.1.1 LPFM classes 4.1.2 Legislation4.1.2.1 Origins of LPFM 4.1.2.2 Radio Broadcasting Preservation Act of 2000 4.1.2.3 Local Community Radio Act of 2005 4.1.2.4 Local Community Radio Act of 2007 4.1.2.5 Local Community Radio Act of 2009 4.1.2.6 Local Community Radio Act of 20104.1.3 Arguments for LPFM 4.1.4 Arguments against LPFM 4.1.5 LPFM vs
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Roman Numerals
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals
Roman numerals
originated in ancient Rome
Rome
and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin
Latin
alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:[1]Symbol I V X L C D MValue 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals
Roman numerals
continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire
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North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement
The North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement,[1] commonly abbreviated as NARBA, refers to a series of international treaties that defined technical standards for AM band
AM band
(mediumwave) radio stations. These agreements also addressed how frequency assignments were distributed among the signatories, with a special emphasis on high-powered clear channel allocations. The initial NARBA bandplan, also known as the "Havana Treaty", was signed by the United States, Canada, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti on December 13, 1937, and took effect March 29, 1941. A series of modifications and adjustments followed, also under the NARBA name. NARBA's provisions were largely supplanted in 1983, with the adoption of the Regional Agreement for the Medium Frequency Broadcasting Service in Region 2 (Rio Agreement), which covered the entire Western hemisphere
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AM Broadcasting
AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting
is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, and is still used worldwide, primarily for medium wave (also known as "AM band") transmissions, but also on the longwave and shortwave radio bands. The earliest experimental AM transmissions were begun in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting
was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters
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Directional Antenna
A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources. Directional antennas provide increased performance over dipole antennas – or omnidirectional antennas in general – when greater concentration of radiation in a certain direction is desired. A high-gain antenna (HGA) is a directional antenna with a focused, narrow radiowave beam width. This narrow beam width allows more precise targeting of the radio signals. Most commonly referred to during space missions, these antennas are also in use all over Earth, most successfully in flat, open areas where no mountains lie to disrupt radiowaves. By contrast, a low-gain antenna (LGA) is an omnidirectional antenna with a broad radiowave beam width, that allows the signal to propagate reasonably well even in mountainous regions and is thus more reliable regardless of terrain
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Continental US
The contiguous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. (federal district), on the continent of North America.[1] The term excludes the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii, and all off-shore insular areas.[2][3] The greatest distance (on a great circle route) entirely within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles (4,509 km, between Florida and the State of Washington);[4] the greatest north-south line is 1,650 miles (2,660 km).[5] Together, the 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C. occupy a combined area of 3,119,884.69 square miles (8,080,464.3 km2), which is 1.58% of the total surface area of Earth. Of this area, 2,959,064.44 square miles (7,663,941.7 km2) is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U.S
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Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.[1] It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.[2] For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)
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ITU Region
The International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU), in its International Radio
Radio
Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum
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Kilohertz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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530 AM
The following radio stations broadcast on AM frequency 530 kHz:Contents1 Canada 2 Cuba 3 United States 4 ReferencesCanada[edit]CIAO in Brampton, Ontario [1] CIRS in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario [1] * CKML in Chalk River, Ontario* CFHS in Fort Frances, Ontario [1] * CKHL in High Level, Alberta [1] (off the air)*Broadcasting statuses for CIRS, CKML, and CFHS are unknown. Cuba[edit]This station can be heard in large parts of the south-eastern U.S. at night time.CMBR (Radio Enciclopedia) in La Habana [2]United States[edit]These are all low-powered Travellers' Information Stations, all operating at 10 Watts of power. A detailed list of all currently licensed stations can be queried at the FCC Website. Note: In large parts of North America, the morse code LYQ (.-.. -.-- --.-) can be heard on this frequency
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Travelers' Information Stations
Travelers information stations (TIS), also called highway advisory radio stations (HAR) by the United States Department of Transportation, are licensed low-power AM radio stations operated by departments of transportation, airports, local government, colleges, parks, events and destinations. The stations provide information to motorists regarding travel, situations of imminent danger and emergencies.Contents1 TIS operation in the United States1.1 Usage of low-power FM stations for TIS2 Outside the United States 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTIS operation in the United States[edit] These systems are licensed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States
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