HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

List (abstract Data Type)
In computer science , a LIST or SEQUENCE is an abstract data type that represents a countable number of ordered values , where the same value may occur more than once. An instance of a list is a computer representation of the mathematical concept of a finite sequence ; the (potentially) infinite analog of a list is a stream . :§3.5 Lists are a basic example of containers , as they contain other values. If the same value occurs multiple times, each occurrence is considered a distinct item. A singly linked list structure, implementing a list with 3 integer elements. The name LIST is also used for several concrete data structures that can be used to implement abstract lists, especially linked lists . Many programming languages provide support for LIST DATA TYPES, and have special syntax and semantics for lists and list operations
[...More...]

"List (abstract Data Type)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Constructor (computer Science)
In class-based object-oriented programming , a CONSTRUCTOR (abbreviation: CTOR) in a class is a special type of subroutine called to create an object . It prepares the new object for use, often accepting arguments that the constructor uses to set required member variables . A constructor resembles an instance method , but it differs from a method in that it has no explicit return type , it is not implicitly inherited and it usually has different rules for scope modifiers. Constructors often have the same name as the declaring class . They have the task of initializing the object's data members and of establishing the invariant of the class , failing if the invariant is invalid. A properly written constructor leaves the resulting object in a valid state. Immutable objects must be initialized in a constructor. Programmers also use the term constructor to denote one of the tags that wraps data in an algebraic data type . This is a different usage than in this article
[...More...]

"Constructor (computer Science)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Lisp (programming Language)
LISP (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation . Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today. Only Fortran is older, by one year. Lisp has changed since its early days, and many dialects have existed over its history. Today, the best known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme . Lisp was originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs , influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church 's lambda calculus . It quickly became the favored programming language for artificial intelligence (AI) research
[...More...]

"Lisp (programming Language)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Symbolics
SYMBOLICS refers to two companies: now-defunct computer manufacturer SYMBOLICS, INC., and a privately held company that acquired the assets of the former company and continues to sell and maintain the Open Genera Lisp system and the Macsyma computer algebra system . The symbolics .com
.com
domain was originally registered on March 15, 1985, making it the first .com
.com
-domain in the world. In August 2009, it was sold to napkin .com
.com
(formerly XF.com) Investments
[...More...]

"Symbolics" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Operation (mathematics)
In mathematics , an OPERATION is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands ) to an output value. The number of operands is the arity of the operation. The most commonly studied operations are binary operations of arity 2, such as addition and multiplication , and unary operations of arity 1, such as additive inverse and multiplicative inverse . An operation of arity zero, or 0-ary operation is a constant . The mixed product is an example of an operation of arity 3, or ternary operation . Generally, the arity is supposed to be finite, but infinitary operations are sometimes considered. In this context, the usual operations, of finite arity are also called FINITARY OPERATIONS
[...More...]

"Operation (mathematics)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Inductive Type
In type theory , a system has INDUCTIVE TYPES if it has facilities for creating a new type along with constants and functions that create terms of that type. The feature serves a role similar to data structures in a programming language and allows a type theory to add concepts like numbers , relations , and trees . As the name suggests, inductive types can be self-referential, but usually only in a way that permits structural recursion . The standard example is encoding the natural numbers using Peano\'s encoding . Inductive nat : Type := 0 : nat S : nat -> nat. Here, a natural number is created either from the constant "0" or by applying the function "S" to another natural number. "S" is the successor function which represents adding 1 to a number. Thus, "0" is zero, "S 0" is one, "S (S 0)" is two, "S (S (S 0))" is three, and so on
[...More...]

"Inductive Type" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Instance (computer Science)
In object-oriented programming (OOP), an INSTANCE is a concrete occurrence of any object , existing usually during the runtime of a computer program. Formally, "instance" is synonymous with "object" as they are each a particular value (realization), and these may be called an INSTANCE OBJECT; "instance" emphasizes the distinct identity of the object. The creation of an instance is called instantiation. In class-based programming , objects are created from classes by subroutines called constructors , and destroyed by destructors . An object is an instance of a class, and may be called a CLASS INSTANCE or CLASS OBJECT; instantiation is then also known as construction. Not all classes can be instantiated – abstract classes cannot be instantiated, while classes that can be instantiated are called concrete classes . In prototype-based programming , instantiation is instead done by copying (cloning) a prototype instance. An object may be varied in a number of ways
[...More...]

"Instance (computer Science)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Lisp Programming Language
LISP (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation . Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today. Only Fortran is older, by one year. Lisp has changed since its early days, and many dialects have existed over its history. Today, the best known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme . Lisp was originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs , influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church
Alonzo Church
's lambda calculus . It quickly became the favored programming language for artificial intelligence (AI) research
[...More...]

"Lisp Programming Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Functional Programming
In computer science , FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING is a programming paradigm —a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs —that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data. It is a declarative programming paradigm, which means programming is done with expressions or declarations instead of statements . In functional code, the output value of a function depends only on the arguments that are passed to the function, so calling a function f twice with the same value for an argument x will produce the same result f(x) each time; this is in contrast to procedures depending on a local or global state , which may produce different results at different times when called with the same arguments but a different program state. Eliminating side effects , i.e
[...More...]

"Functional Programming" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

CDR Coding
In computer science CDR CODING is a compressed data representation for Lisp linked lists . It was developed and patented by the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory , and implemented in computer hardware in a number of Lisp machines derived from the MIT CADR . CDR coding is in fact a fairly general idea; whenever a data object A ends in a reference to another data structure B, we can instead place the structure B itself there, overlapping and running off the end of A. By doing this we free the space required by the reference, which can add up if done many times, and also improve locality of reference , enhancing performance on modern machines. The transformation is especially effective for the cons -based lists it was created for; we free about half of the space for each node we perform this transformation on
[...More...]

"CDR Coding" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Iteration
ITERATION is the act of repeating a process, either to generate an unbounded sequence of outcomes, or with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result. Each repetition of the process is also called an "iteration", and the results of one iteration are used as the starting point for the next iteration. In the context of mathematics or computer science , iteration (along with the related technique of recursion ) is a standard building block of algorithms . CONTENTS * 1 Mathematics
Mathematics
* 2 Computing * 3 Education * 4 Relationship with recursion * 5 Other terminology * 6 See also * 7 References MATHEMATICSITERATION in mathematics may refer to the process of iterating a function i.e. applying a function repeatedly, using the output from one iteration as the input to the next
[...More...]

"Iteration" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Lua Programming Language
LUA (/ˈluːə/ LOO-ə , from Portuguese : lua meaning moon ) is a lightweight , multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded systems and clients. Lua is cross-platform , since the interpreter is written in ANSI C , and has a relatively simple C API . Lua was originally designed in 1993 as a language for extending software applications to meet the increasing demand for customization at the time. It provided the basic facilities of most procedural programming languages, but more complicated or domain-specific features were not included; rather, it included mechanisms for extending the language, allowing programmers to implement such features. As Lua was intended to be a general embeddable extension language, the designers of Lua focused on improving its speed, portability, extensibility, and ease-of-use in development
[...More...]

"Lua Programming Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Scheme (programming Language)
SCHEME is a functional programming language and one of the two main dialects of the programming language Lisp . Unlike Common Lisp , the other main dialect, Scheme follows a minimalist design philosophy specifying a small standard core with powerful tools for language extension. Scheme was created during the 1970s at the MIT
MIT
AI Lab and released by its developers, Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman , via a series of memos now known as the Lambda Papers . It was the first dialect of Lisp to choose lexical scope and the first to require implementations to perform tail-call optimization , giving stronger support for functional programming and associated techniques such as recursive algorithms. It was also one of the first programming languages to support first-class continuations . It had a significant influence on the effort that led to the development of Common Lisp
[...More...]

"Scheme (programming Language)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Set (mathematics)
In mathematics , a SET is a well-defined collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right. For example, the numbers 2, 4, and 6 are distinct objects when considered separately, but when they are considered collectively they form a single set of size three, written {2,4,6}. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. Developed at the end of the 19th century, set theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics, and can be used as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can be derived. In mathematics education , elementary topics such as Venn diagrams are taught at a young age, while more advanced concepts are taught as part of a university degree. The German word Menge, rendered as "set" in English, was coined by Bernard Bolzano
Bernard Bolzano
in his work The Paradoxes of the Infinite
[...More...]

"Set (mathematics)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Random Access
In computer science , RANDOM ACCESS (more precisely and more generally called DIRECT ACCESS) is the ability to access any item of data from a population of addressable elements roughly as easily and efficiently as any other, no matter how many elements may be in the set. It is typically contrasted to sequential access . For example, data might be stored notionally in a single sequence like a row, in two dimensions like rows and columns on a surface, or in multiple dimensions. However, given all the coordinates, a program can access each record about as quickly and easily as any other. In this sense the choice of data item is arbitrary in the sense that no matter which item is sought, all that is needed to find it, is its address, that is to say, the coordinates at which it is located, such as its row and column (or its track and record number on a magnetic drum )
[...More...]

"Random Access" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Functional Language
In computer science , FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING is a programming paradigm —a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs —that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data. It is a declarative programming paradigm, which means programming is done with expressions or declarations instead of statements . In functional code, the output value of a function depends only on the arguments that are passed to the function, so calling a function f twice with the same value for an argument x will produce the same result f(x) each time; this is in contrast to procedures depending on a local or global state , which may produce different results at different times when called with the same arguments but a different program state. Eliminating side effects , i.e
[...More...]

"Functional Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.