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Lipka Tatars
The Lipka Tatars
Tatars
(also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars
Tatars
who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
at the beginning of the 14th century. The first settlers tried to preserve their shamanistic religion and sought asylum amongst the non- Christian
Christian
Lithuanians.[5] Towards the end of the 14th century, another wave of Tatars
Tatars
– this time, Muslims, were invited into the Grand Duchy by Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great. These Tatars
Tatars
first settled in Lithuania
Lithuania
proper around Vilnius, Trakai, Hrodna
Hrodna
and Kaunas
Kaunas
[5] and later spread to other parts of the Grand Duchy that later became part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
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Language Contact
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other. The study of language contact is called contact linguistics. Multilingualism
Multilingualism
has likely been common throughout much of human history, and today most people in the world are multilingual.[1] When speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for their languages to influence each other. Language contact can occur at language borders,[2] between adstratum languages, or as the result of migration, with an intrusive language acting as either a superstratum or a substratum. Language contact occurs in a variety of phenomena, including language convergence, borrowing and relexification. The most common products are pidgins, creoles, code-switching, and mixed languages
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Lithuanian Tartars Of The Imperial Guard
The Lithuanian Tartars of the Imperial Guard
Lithuanian Tartars of the Imperial Guard
(French: Tartares lituaniens de la Garde impériale) were a light cavalry unit of Napoleon's Imperial Guard, in the service of the French Army from 1812 to 1814. The Lithuanian Tatars, descendants of Crimean Tatars, were organized into a single squadron at the beginning of the Russian Campaign. Their first commander was Squadron Leader Achmatowicz, who was killed at Vilna and succeeded by Captain Ulan, who led the unit through the remainder of the war
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Bolshevik Revolution
Bolshevik victoryEnd of Russian Provisional Government, Russian Republic
Russian Republic
and dual power Creation of Soviet Russia The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets
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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(de jure)Krakow[2](1569–1596) Warsaw[2][b] (1596–1795) (de facto)Common languagesOfficial:Polish and Latin Regional: LithuanianRuthenian(see Languages section for details)Religion Official:Roman Catholicism Minority: Orthodox ChristianityProtestantismJudaismIslamGovernment Hereditary monarchy(1569–1573) Elective monarchy(1573–1791; 1792–1795) Constitutional monarchy(1791–1792) King / Grand Duke • 1569–1572 Sigismund II Augustus (first)• 1764–1795 Stanisław August Poniatowski
Stanisław August Poniatowski
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Mongol Empire
The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
(Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren  listen (help·info); Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; [mɔŋɡ(ɔ)ɮˈiːŋ ɛt͡sˈɛnt ˈɡurəŋ]; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian c
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Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
or Chinggis Khaan[note 3] (born Temüjin,[note 4] c. 1162 – August 18, 1227), was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia
Western Xia
controlled lands
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White Horde
According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
(1247–1318), Genghis Khan's eldest son, Jochi, had nearly 40 sons, of whom he names 14. When he died, they inherited their father's dominions as fiefs under the rule of their brothers, Batu Khan, as supreme khan and Orda Khan, who, although the elder of the two, agreed that Batu enjoyed primacy as the Khan of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(Jochid Ulus). Orda, along with some of his younger brothers, ruled the eastern wing of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
while Batu and others ruled the western wing of it. These Hordes are known as the "White", "Blue" and "Grey" (Shaybanid) Hordes in Slavic and Persian historiography. The two main divisions are also known as Batu's Ulus (district) and Orda's Ulus. Note: Different authors use 'Blue Horde' and 'White Horde' with opposite definitions
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Golden Horde
The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus (Mongolian: Алтан Орд, romanized: Altan Ord; Kazakh: Алтын Орда, Altın Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда, Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда, romanized: Zolotaya Orda) was originally a Mongol
Mongol
and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.[6] With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.[7] After the death of Batu Khan
Batu Khan
(the founder of the Golden Horde) in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai did instigate a partial civil war in the late 1290s. The Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1312–1341), who adopted Islam
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Kazan Khanate
The Khanate of Kazan
Kazan
(Tatar: Cyrillic Казан ханлыгы, Latin Qazan xanlığı, Arabic قازان خانليغى; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian-Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria
Volga Bulgaria
between 1438 and 1552. Its khans were the patrilineal descendants of Tugh Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi
Jochi
and grandson of Genghis Khan. The khanate covered contemporary Tatarstan, Mari El, Chuvashia, Mordovia, and parts of Udmurtia
Udmurtia
and Bashkortostan; its capital was the city of Kazan
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Kipchak Languages
 Kipchak–Bulgar   Kipchak–Cuman   Kipchak–Nogai and Kyrgyz–Kipchak The Kipchak languages
Kipchak languages
(also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family spoken by approximately 26–28 million people in much of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Eastern Europe, spanning from Ukraine
Ukraine
to China.Contents1 Linguistic features1.1 Shared features 1.2 Unique features2 Classification 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyLinguistic features[edit] The Kipchak languages
Kipchak languages
share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kipchak family. Shared features[edit]Change of Proto-Turkic *d to /j/ (e.g
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Turkic Languages
The Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are a language family of at least thirty-five[2] documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia
Eurasia
from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia
Central Asia
and West Asia
West Asia
all the way to North Asia
North Asia
(particularly in Siberia) and East Asia
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Tartary
Tartary
Tartary
(Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary
Tartary
(Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the
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Lukiškės Square
Lukiškės Square
Lukiškės Square
(other spellings include Łukiszki, Lukiski, Lukishki, Lithuanian: Lukiškių aikštė) is the largest square (about 4 ha) in Vilnius, Lithuania, located in the center of the city. A major street in Vilnius, Gediminas Avenue, passes by the southern border of the square. It is surrounded by many public buildings, including Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Foreign affairs, Appeals Court, Academy of Music and Theater, Church of St. James and St. Phillip, Dominican Monastery with former St. Jacob Hospital. Currently the city of Vilnius
Vilnius
holds a contest to redesign the square. History[edit] Between the 17th and 19th centuries, it was a suburb of Vilnius
Vilnius
and called Lukiškės
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