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Limited Company
In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company. Limited companies may be limited by shares or by guarantee. The former may be further divided in public companies and private companies. Who may become a member of a private limited company is restricted by law and by the company's rules. In contrast, anyone may buy shares in a public limited company. Limited companies can be found in most countries, although the detailed rules governing them vary widely. It is also common for a distinction to be made between the publicly tradable companies of the plc type (for example, the German Aktiengesellschaft
Aktiengesellschaft
(AG), British PLC, Czech a.s., Italian S.p.A., Hungarian Zrt. and the Spanish, French, Polish, Greek and Romanian S.A.), and the "private" types of company (such as the German GmbH, Portuguese Ltda., British Ltd., Polish sp
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Anguillan Company Law
Anguillan company law is primarily codified in three principal statutes:the International Business Companies Act (Cap I.20);[1] the Companies Act (Cap C.65); and the Limited Liability Companies Act (Cap L.65).The Companies Act is generally reserved for companies which engaged in business physically in Anguilla, and companies formed under it are generally referred to as either "CACs" (an acronym for Companies Act Companies) or "ABCs" (an acronym for Anguillan Business Company)
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British Virgin Islands Company Law
British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
company law is primarily codified in the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004, and to a lesser extent by the Insolvency Act, 2003 and the Securities and Investment Business Act, 2010. The British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
has approximately 30 registered companies per head of population, which is probably the highest ratio of any country in the world. Annual company registration fees provide a significant part of Government revenue in the British Virgin Islands, which accounts for the comparative lack of other taxation
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Cayman Islands Company Law
Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
company law is primarily codified in the Companies Law (2016 Revision) and the Limited Liability Companies Law, 2016,[1] and to a lesser extent in the Securities and Investment Business Law (2015 Revision). The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a leading Offshore Financial Centre, and financial services forms a significant part of the economy of the Cayman Islands
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Holding Company
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies. In the United States, 80% of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed.[1] That is, if Company A owns 80% or more of the stock of Company B, Company A will not pay taxes on dividends paid by Company B to its stockholders, as the payment of dividends from B to A is essentially transferring cash from one company to the other
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Corporate Law In The United States
United States corporate law
United States corporate law
regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in US law. Every state and territory has its own basic corporate code, while federal law creates minimum standards for trade in company shares and governance rights, found mostly in the Securities Act of 1933
Securities Act of 1933
and the Securities and Exchange Act
Securities and Exchange Act
of 1934, as amended by laws like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010. The US Constitution
US Constitution
was interpreted by the US Supreme Court to allow corporations to incorporate in the state of their choice, regardless of where their headquarters are
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Community Interest Company
A community interest company (CIC) is a type of company introduced by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government in 2005 under the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004, designed for social enterprises that want to use their profits and assets for the public good.[1] CICs are intended to be easy to set up, with all the flexibility and certainty of the company form, but with some special features to ensure they are working for the benefit of the community. They have proved popular and some 10,000 registered in the status's first 10 years.[2]


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Societas Europaea
A societas Europaea (Latin pronunciation: [soˈki.e.taːs ew.roːˈpae.a] SE; Latin: European society or company; plural: societates Europaeae) is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union
European Union
(EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company.[2] Such a company may more easily transfer to or merge with companies in other member states. 2,943 registrations have been reported as of 6 February 2018, including the following nine components (18%) of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index of leading Euro Area
Euro Area
companies (excluding the SE designation): Airbus, Allianz, BASF, E.ON, Fresenius, LVMH
LVMH
Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton, SAP, Schneider Electric
Schneider Electric
and Unibail-Rodamco.[3][4] National law continues to supplement the basic rules in the Regulation on formation and mergers
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Societas Cooperativa Europaea
The European Cooperative
Cooperative
Society (SCE, for Latin
Latin
societas cooperativa Europaea) is, in company law, a European co-operative type of company, established in 2006 and related to the European Company. European Cooperative
Cooperative
Societies may be established, and may operate, throughout the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(including the European Community). The legal form was created to remove the need for co-operatives to establish a subsidiary in each Member State in which they operate, and to allow them to move their registered office and head office freely from one Member State to another, keeping their legal identity and without having to register or wind up any legal persons
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Delaware General Corporation Law
The Delaware
Delaware
General Corporation
Corporation
Law (Title 8, Chapter 1 of the Delaware
Delaware
Code) is the statute governing corporate law in the U.S. state of Delaware. It has been the most important jurisdiction in United States corporate law
United States corporate law
since the early 20th century. Over 50% of publicly traded corporations in the United States and 60% of the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
are incorporated in the state.[1]Contents1 History 2 Other legal aspects2.1 Case of TransPerfect3 Tax benefits and burdens 4 2013 amendments 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksHistory[edit] See also: Regulatory competition and Race to the bottom Delaware
Delaware
acquired its status as a corporate haven in the early 20th century
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Societas Unius Personae
A societas unius personae (SUP; single-person company) is a legal form for a single-member private limited liability company proposed by the European Commission. See also[edit]European corporate lawSocietas Europaea Societas cooperativa Europaea Societas privata EuropaeaExternal links[edit]2014 Memo by the Commissionv t e European corporate forms Societas Europaea
Societas Europaea
(SE)
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European Economic Interest Grouping
A European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) is a type of legal entity of the European corporate law
European corporate law
created on 1985-07-25 under European Community (EC) Council Regulation 2137/85.[1] It is designed to make it easier for companies in different countries to do business together, or to form consortia to take part in EU programmes. Its activities must be ancillary to those of its members, and, as with a partnership, any profit or loss it makes is attributed to its members. Thus, although it is liable for VAT
VAT
and employees’ social insurance, it is not liable to corporation tax. It has unlimited liability. It was based on the pre-existing French groupement d´intérêt économique (G.i.e.). Several thousand EEIGs now exist, active in fields as varied as agricultural marketing, legal advice, research and development, osteopathy, motorcycle preservation[citation needed] and cat-breeding[citation needed]
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Charitable Incorporated Organisation
A charitable incorporated organisation (CIO) is a new form of legal entity designed for non-profit organisations in the United Kingdom. The main intended benefits of the new entity are that it has legal personality, the ability to conduct business in its own name, and limited liability so that its members and trustees will not have to contribute in the event of financial loss. These are already available to limited companies; charities can be formed as companies, but then they must be registered with both Companies House
Companies House
and the Charity Commission. In contrast, the CIO only needs to register with the Charity Commission. This is expected to reduce bureaucracy for the charity.[1] The CIO status became available to charities in England and Wales on 4 March 2013
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Low-profit Limited Liability Company
A low-profit limited liability company (L3C) is a legal form of business entity in the United States
United States
that was created to bridge the gap between non-profit and for-profit investing by providing a structure that facilitates investments in socially beneficial, for-profit ventures by simplifying compliance with Internal Revenue Service rules for program-related investments, a type of investment that private foundations are allowed to make.[1][2][3][4]Contents1 Concept 2 Legislation 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksConcept[edit] An L3C is a for
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Industrial And Provident Society
An industrial and provident society (IPS) was a legal entity for a trading business or voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, and New Zealand. The name is still used in New Zealand,[1] the Republic of Ireland[2] and within the UK in Northern Ireland.[3] Recent legal developments in Great Britain
Great Britain
include the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act 2014, which has renamed these societies as co-operative or community benefit societies. From 1 August 2014 a new society has had to register as either a co-operative or a community benefit society rather than, as was the case previously, a society that meets either requirement
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Private Company Limited By Guarantee
In British and Irish company law, a company limited by guarantee (LBG) is an alternative type of corporation used primarily for non-profit organisations that require legal personality. A company limited by guarantee does not usually have a share capital or shareholders, but instead has members who act as guarantors. The guarantors give an undertaking to contribute a nominal amount (typically very small) in the event of the winding up of the company.[1] A company limited by guarantee can distribute its profits to its members, if allowed to by its articles of association,[2] but then it would not be eligible for charitable status. Limited companies can convert to a community interest company (CIC) which feature an asset lock which prevents the extraction of profits. Like a private company limited by shares, a company limited by guarantee must include the suffix "Limited" in its name, except in circumstances specifically excluded by law
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