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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Meteorology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Meteorology
Meteorology
is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data
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Piatra Craiului Mountains
The Piatra Craiului Mountains are a mountain range in the Southern Carpathians in Romania. In Romanian "Piatra Craiului" means "Prince's Stone". The Piatra Craiului mountains form a narrow and saw-like ridge, which is about 25 km (16 mi) long. The highest elevation in the massif is the "Vârful La Om" at 2,238 metres (7,343 ft). The ridge is regarded as one of the most beautiful sites in the Carpathians. The two-day north–south ridge trail is both challenging and rewarding. Starting at either Plaiul Foii in the north-west or Curmătura in the north-east, walkers climb up to the ridge before following a somewhat precarious path along the narrow spine
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Gozo
Gozo (/ˈɡoʊ.zoʊ/; Maltese: Għawdex, pronounced [ˈaˤːw.dɛʃ],[2] formerly Gaulos)[3][4] is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The island is part of Malta. After the island of Malta itself, it is the second-largest island in the archipelago. Compared to its southeastern neighbour, Gozo is more rural and known for its scenic hills, which are featured on its coat of arms.[5] The island of Gozo has long been associated with Ogygia, the island home of the nymph Calypso in Homer's Odyssey. In that story, Calypso, possessed of great supernatural powers, and in love with Odysseus, holds him captive for a number of years, until finally releasing him to continue his journey home.[6] As of March 2015, the island has a population of around 37,342 (out of Malta's total 445,000), and its inhabitants are known as Gozitans (Maltese: Għawdxin)
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Silica
Silica Silicic oxide Silicon(IV) oxide Crystalline silicaIdentifiersCAS Number7631-86-9 YChEBICHEBI:30563 YChemSpider22683 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.678EC Number 231-545-4E number E551 (acidity regulators, ...)Gmelin Reference200274KEGGC16459 NMeSH Silicon+dioxide PubChem CID24261 RTECS number VV7565000UNIIETJ7Z6XBU4 YInChIInChI=1S/O2Si/c1-3-2 Y Key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N YPropertiesChemical formulaSiO2Molar mass 60.08 g/molAppearance Transparent solid (Amorphous) White/Whitish Yellow (Powder/Sand
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Soil Conditioner
A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability to provide nutrition for plants) and sometimes its mechanics. In general usage, the term "soil conditioner" is often thought of as a subset of the category soil amendments, which more often is understood to include a wide range of fertilizers and non-organic materials.[1] Soil
Soil
conditioners can be used to improve poor soils, or to rebuild soils which have been damaged by improper soil management. They are made from pressmud, a residue of sugarcane filtration also a by product of it
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Chalcedony
Chalcedony
Chalcedony
( /kælˈsɛdəni/) is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite.[2] These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, while moganite is monoclinic. Chalcedony's standard chemical structure (based on the chemical structure of quartz) is SiO2 (silicon dioxide). Chalcedony
Chalcedony
has a waxy luster, and may be semitransparent or translucent. It can assume a wide range of colors, but those most commonly seen are white to gray, grayish-blue or a shade of brown ranging from pale to nearly black. The color of chalcedony sold commercially is often enhanced by dyeing or heating.[3] The name chalcedony comes from the Latin
Latin
chalcedonius (alternatively spelled calchedonius)
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Feedstock
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products. As feedstock, the term connotes these materials are bottleneck assets and are highly important with regard to producing other products. An example of this is crude oil, which is a raw material and a feedstock used in the production of industrial chemicals, fuels, plastics, and pharmaceutical goods; lumber is a raw material used to produce a variety of products including all types of furniture.[1] Metallic raw material production follows the processes such as crushing, roasting, magnetic separation, flotation, and leaching (at the first step), smelting and alloying (at the second step)
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Paint
Paint
Paint
is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint
Paint
can be made or purchased in many colors—and in many different types, such as watercolor, synthetic, etc
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Toothpaste
Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is used to promote oral hygiene: it serves as an abrasive that aids in removing dental plaque and food from the teet
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Jasper
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,[1][2] is an opaque,[3] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions. The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and snuff boxes
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Diatoms
Diatoms[6] are a major group of microalgae, and are among the most common types of phytoplankton. Diatoms are unicellular, although they can form colonies in the shape of filaments or ribbons (e.g. Fragilaria), fans (e.g. Meridion), zigzags (e.g. Tabellaria), or stars (e.g. Asterionella). The first diatom formally described in scientific literature, the colonial Bacillaria paradoxa, was found in 1783 by Danish naturalist Otto Friedrich Müller. Diatoms are producers within the food chain. A unique feature of diatom cells is that they are enclosed within a cell wall made of silica (hydrated silicon dioxide) called a frustule.[7] These frustules show a wide diversity in form, but are usually almost bilaterally symmetrical, hence the group name. The symmetry is not perfect since one of the valves is slightly larger than the other, allowing one valve to fit inside the edge of the other. These shells are used by humans as diatomaceous earth, also known as diatomite
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Building Material
Building
Building
material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work
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Radiolarians
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.[1] They are found as zooplankton throughout the ocean, and their skeletal remains make up a large part of the cover of the ocean floor as siliceous ooze. Due to their rapid turn-over[clarification needed] of species, they represent an important diagnostic fossil found from the Cambrian
Cambrian
onwards
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Clay
Clay
Clay
is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO4), metal oxides (Al2O3 , MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing.[1][2][3] Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.Electron microscope photograph of smectite clay – magnification 23,500Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy
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Solubility
Solubility
Solubility
is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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