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LibreOffice IBM BIPM Logos
LIBREOFFICE is a free and open source office suite , a project of The Document Foundation . It was forked from OpenOffice.org
OpenOffice.org
in 2010, which was an open-sourced version of the earlier StarOffice . The Libre Office suite comprises programs for word processing, the creation and editing of spreadsheets, slideshows, diagrams and drawings, working with databases , and composing mathematical formulae. It is available in 110 languages. LibreOffice
LibreOffice
uses the international ISO /IEC standard OpenDocument file format (ODF) as its native format to save documents for all of its applications. LibreOffice
LibreOffice
also supports the file formats of most other major office suites, including Microsoft Office , through a variety of import/export filters. LibreOffice
LibreOffice
is available for a variety of computing platforms , including Microsoft Windows
Windows
, macOS (10.8 or newer), and Linux (including a LibreOffice
LibreOffice
Viewer for Android ), as well as in the form of an online office suite . It is the default office suite of most popular Linux
Linux
distributions . It is the most actively developed free and open-source office suite, with approximately 50 times the development activity of Apache OpenOffice , the other major descendant of OpenOffice.org
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Software Developer
A SOFTWARE DEVELOPER is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming , and testing of computer software . Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer , software analyst , and software engineer . According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development , and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become systems architects , those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system. (see also Debate over who is a software engineer ) In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above. In smaller development environments, a few people or even a single individual might handle the complete process. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Qualifications and Skills * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe word "software" was coined as a prank as early as 1953, but did not appear in print until the 1960's. Before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as UNIVAC
UNIVAC
and IBM
IBM

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The Document Foundation
THE DOCUMENT FOUNDATION (TDF) is a non-profit organization that promotes open-source document handling software. It was created by members of the OpenOffice.org community to manage and develop LibreOffice , a free and open source office suite, and is legally registered in Germany as a _ Stiftung _. Its goal is to produce a vendor-independent office suite with ODF support in a development environment free from company control. The Document Foundation was created partially over fears that Oracle Corporation , after acquiring Sun Microsystems , would discontinue developing OpenOffice.org as they had done with OpenSolaris . CONTENTS* 1 Organization * 1.1 Board of Directors * 1.2 Advisory board * 2 History * 2.1 Creation * 2.1.1 Reaction * 2.2 Adding the Document Liberation Project * 3 References * 4 External links ORGANIZATION This image shows the relationship between various official groups within The Document Foundation, including the Board of Directors, the Membership Committee, and the Board of Trustees
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Software Release Life Cycle
A SOFTWARE RELEASE LIFE CYCLE is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software : ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Stages of development * 2.1 Pre-alpha * 2.2 Alpha * 2.3 Beta * 2.3.1 Open and closed beta * 2.4 Release candidate * 3 Release * 3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) * 3.2 General availability (GA) * 3.3 Release to web (RTW) * 4 Support * 4.1 End-of-life * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography HISTORYUsage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM
IBM
. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM
IBM
used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured. "C" test was the final test before general availability of the product. As software became a significant part of IBM's offerings, the alpha test terminology was used to denote the pre-announcement test and beta test was used to show product readiness for general availability. Martin Belsky, a manager on some of IBM's earlier software projects claimed to have invented the terminology
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Repository (version Control)
In revision control systems , a REPOSITORY is an on-disk data structure which stores metadata for a set of files and/or directory structure. Depending on whether the version control system in use is distributed (for instance, Git or Mercurial ) or centralized (Subversion or Perforce , for example), the whole set of information in the repository may be duplicated on every user's system or may be maintained on a single server . Some of the metadata that a repository contains includes, among other things: * A historical record of changes in the repository. * A set of commit objects. * A set of references to commit objects, called _heads_.STORING CHANGESThe main purpose of a repository is to store a set of files, as well as the history of changes made to those files. Exactly how each revision control system handles storing those changes, however, differs greatly: for instance, Subversion has in the past relied on a database instance and has since moved to storing its changes directly on the filesystem. These differences in methodology have generally led to diverse uses of revision control by different groups, depending on their needs. SEE ALSO * Software repository * Codebase * Forge (software) * Comparison of source code hosting facilities REFERENCES * ^ "SVNBook". Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "Getting Started - About Version Control". Git SCM
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C++
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet . It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet . It is named cee (pronounced /siː/ ) in English . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Later use * 3 Use in writing systems * 3.1 English * 3.2 Other languages * 3.3 Other systems * 3.4 Digraphs * 4 Related characters * 4.1 Ancestors, descendants and siblings * 4.2 Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols * 5 Computing codes * 6 Other representations * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY Phoenician gaml Arabic ǧīm Hebrew gimel Greek Gamma
Gamma
Etruscan C Old Latin C (G) "C" comes from the same letter as "G". The Semites named it gimel . The sign is possibly adapted from an Egyptian hieroglyph for a staff sling , which may have been the meaning of the name gimel. Another possibility is that it depicted a camel, the Semitic name for which was gamal. Barry B. Powell , a specialist in the history of writing, states "It is hard to imagine how gimel = "camel" can be derived from the picture of a camel (it may show his hump, or his head and neck!)". In the Etruscan language , plosive consonants had no contrastive voicing , so the Greek 'Γ ' (Gamma) was adopted into the Etruscan alphabet to represent /k/
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Java (programming Language)
JAVA is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent , class-based , object-oriented , and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere " (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture . As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use , particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation ) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform . The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++
C++
, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. The original and reference implementation Java compilers , virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process , Sun relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License
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Python (programming Language)
PYTHON is a widely used high-level programming language for general-purpose programming , created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. An interpreted language , Python has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability (notably using whitespace indentation to delimit code blocks rather than curly brackets or keywords), and a syntax that allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than might be used in languages such as C++
C++
or Java . The language provides constructs intended to enable writing clear programs on both a small and large scale. Python features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and supports multiple programming paradigms , including object-oriented , imperative , functional programming , and procedural styles. It has a large and comprehensive standard library . Python interpreters are available for many operating systems , allowing Python code to run on a wide variety of systems. CPython , the reference implementation of Python, is open source software and has a community-based development model, as do nearly all of its variant implementations. CPython is managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation
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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . All computer programs , excluding firmware , require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers . The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 83.3%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (11.2%), and the varieties of Linux
Linux
is in third position (1.55%)
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Linux
LINUX (pronounced /ˈlɪnəks/ (_ listen ) LIN-əks_ or, less frequently, /ˈlaɪnəks/ _LYN-əks_ ) is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel , an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds . The Free Software Foundation uses the name _ GNU /Linux_ to describe the operating system, which has led to some controversy . Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of the Linux kernel-based Android OS on smartphones , Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems . Linux is also the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers , and is used on 99.6% of the TOP500 supercomputers . It is used by around 2.3% of desktop computers . The Chromebook , which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS , dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20% of the sub-$300 notebook sales in the US
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Windows
MICROSOFT WINDOWS, or simply WINDOWS, is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft . It consists of several families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded ; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server . Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x , Windows Mobile and Windows Phone . Microsoft introduced an operating environment named _Windows_ on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share , overtaking Mac OS , which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993). On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system
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MacOS
MACOS (pronounced /ˌmækoʊˈɛs/ ; previously MAC OS X and later OS X) is the current series of Unix-based graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. designed to run on Apple's Macintosh
Macintosh
computers ("Macs"). It has been preinstalled on all Macs since 2002. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
. Launched in 2001 as Mac OS X, the series is the latest in the family of Macintosh operating systems . Mac OS X succeeded "classic" Mac OS , which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. An initial, early version of the system, Mac OS X Server 1.0 , was released in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0
Mac OS X 10.0
, followed in March 2001. Releases were code named after big cats from the original release up until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion . Beginning in 2013 with OS X 10.9 Mavericks , releases have been named after landmarks in California
California
. Apple changed the original name "Mac OS X" to "OS X" in 2012 and then to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that it uses for their other operating systems, iOS , watchOS , and tvOS . The latest version of macOS is macOS 10.12 Sierra , which was publicly released in September 2016
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FreeBSD
FREEBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD). Although for legal reasons FreeBSD cannot use the Unix trademark , it is a direct descendant of BSD, which was historically also called "BSD Unix" or "Berkeley Unix". The first version of FreeBSD was released in 1993, and today FreeBSD is the most widely used open-source BSD distribution, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed systems running open-source BSD derivatives. FreeBSD has similarities with Linux , with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD maintains a complete operating system, i.e. the project delivers kernel , device drivers , userland utilities and documentation , as opposed to Linux delivering a kernel and drivers only and relying on third-parties for system software; and FreeBSD source code is generally released under a permissive BSD license as opposed to the copyleft GPL used by Linux. The FreeBSD project includes a security team overseeing all software shipped in the base distribution. A wide range of additional third-party applications may be installed using the pkgng package management system or the FreeBSD Ports , or by directly compiling source code
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NetBSD
NETBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley . It was the second open-source BSD descendant formally released after it was forked from 386BSD . It continues to be actively developed and is available for many platforms, including large-scale server systems, desktop systems, and handheld devices, and is often used in embedded systems . The NetBSD project focuses on code clarity, careful design, and portability across many computer architectures . NetBSD's source code is openly available and permissively licensed
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Android (operating System)
ANDROID is a mobile operating system developed by Google
Google
, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets . Android's user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation , using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input. In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on notebooks , game consoles , digital cameras , and other electronics. Initially developed by Android Inc., which Google
Google
bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance – a consortium of hardware , software , and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Beginning with the first commercial Android device in September 2008, the operating system has gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 7.0 "Nougat" , released in August 2016. Android applications ("apps ") can be downloaded from the Google
Google
Play store, which features over 2.7 million apps as of February 2017
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Computing Platform
A COMPUTING PLATFORM is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system (OS), even a web browser or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed in it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture , an OS, or runtime libraries . A computing platform is the stage on which computer programs can run. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process , in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions; and as an assistance to the development process, in that they provide low-level functionality ready-made. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network . CONTENTS * 1 Components * 2 Operating system examples * 2.1 Desktop, laptop, server * 2.2 Mobile * 3 Software frameworks * 4 Hardware examples * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMPONENTSPlatforms may also include: * Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems . Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS; this is referred to as running on "bare metal ". * A browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser
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