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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs. This is known as centralized cataloging. Each set of cards was given a serial number to help identify it. Although most of the bibliographic information is now electronically created, stored, and shared with other libraries, there is still a need to identify each unique record, and the LCCN continues to perform that function. Librarians all over the world use this unique identifier in the process of cataloging most books which have been published in the United States
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Serial Number
A SERIAL CODE is a unique identifier assigned incrementally or sequentially to an item. It is also called a SERIAL NUMBER, although it may be a character string that includes letters and other typographical symbols , not just numerical digits . CONTENTS* 1 Applications of serial numbering * 1.1 Serial numbers for intangibles * 2 Other uses of the term * 2.1 Military and government use * 3 Serial number arithmetic * 4 See also * 5 Notes and references * 6 External links APPLICATIONS OF SERIAL NUMBERING For more details on this topic, see Numbering scheme . Serial numbers identify otherwise identical individual units with many, obvious uses. Serial numbers are a deterrent against theft and counterfeit products, as they can be recorded, and stolen or otherwise irregular goods can be identified. Banknotes and other transferable documents of value bear serial numbers to assist in preventing counterfeiting and tracing stolen ones. They are valuable in quality control , as once a defect is found in the production of a particular batch of product, the serial number will identify which units are affected. SERIAL NUMBERS FOR INTANGIBLESSerial numbers may be used to identify individual physical or intangible objects (e.g., computer software or the right to play an online multiplayer game ). The purpose and application is different
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Library Of Congress
more than 38 million books and other printed materials, 3.6 million recordings, 14 million photographs, 5.5 million maps, 8.1 million pieces of sheet music and 70 million manuscripts, 5,711 incunabula , and 122,810,430 items in the nonclassified (special) collections: more than 164,000,000 total items ACCESS AND USE CIRCULATION Library does not publicly circulate POPULATION SERVED 535 members of the United States Congress , their staff, and members of the public OTHER INFORMATION BUDGET $598,402,000 DIRECTOR Carla Hayden ( Librarian of Congress ) STAFF 3,224 WEBSITE Loc.gov Main reading room at the Library of Congress The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the _de facto_ national library of the United States . It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. ; it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia , which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center . The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages
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Library Of Congress Classification
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CLASSIFICATION (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books (and authors), which also defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is also distinct from Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Subject Headings , the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically. Finally, the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982". The classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter , it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification , the Dewey Decimal System , and the Putnam Classification System (developed while Putnam was head librarian at the Minneapolis Public Library )
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Library Catalog
A LIBRARY CATALOG or LIBRARY CATALOGUE is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A bibliographic item can be any information entity (e.g., books, computer files, graphics, realia , cartographic materials, etc.) that is considered library material (e.g., a single novel in an anthology ), or a group of library materials (e.g., a trilogy ), or linked from the catalog (e.g., a webpage) as far as it is relevant to the catalog and to the users (patrons) of the library. The CARD CATALOG was a familiar sight to library users for generations, but it has been effectively replaced by the online public access catalog (OPAC). Some still refer to the online catalog as a "card catalog". Some libraries with OPAC access still have card catalogs on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated. Many libraries that retain their physical card catalog will post a sign advising the last year that the card catalog was updated. Some libraries have eliminated their card catalog in favour of the OPAC for the purpose of saving space for other use, such as additional shelving. The largest library catalog in the world is the WorldCat.org union catalog managed by the non-profit library cooperative OCLC , based in Dublin, Ohio . In January 2016, WorldCat.org had over 360,000,000 catalog records and over 2 billion library holdings
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Librarian
A LIBRARIAN is a person who works professionally in a library , providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming. In addition, librarians provide instruction on information literacy . They are usually required to hold a graduate degree from a library school such as a Master\'s degree in Library Science or Library and Information Studies . CONTENTS * 1 Duties and functions * 2 History * 2.1 North America * 2.2 The ancient world * 2.3 Middle Ages and Renaissance * 2.4 Enlightenment era * 2.5 Modern era * 3 Roles and responsibilities * 3.1 Positions and duties * 3.2 Additional responsibilities * 4 Workplaces * 4.1 Public library * 4.2 Academic library * 4.3 School library * 4.4 Special library * 5 Education * 5.1 The US and Canada * 5.2 Europe * 5.3 Australia * 5.4 Advanced degrees * 5.5 Library-related positions * 6 Professional organizations and activities * 7 Technology * 8 Popular culture * 9 The Deaf community and librarianship in the United States * 9.1 Deaf libraries * 10 Gender and librarianship in the United States * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links DUTIES AND FUNCTIONSTraditionally, a librarian is associated with collections of books , as demonstrated by the etymology of the word "librarian" (from the Latin _liber_, "book")
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Identifier
An IDENTIFIER is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols stand for (represent) ideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a CODE or ID CODE. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are often said to be ARBITRARY IDS; they are arbitrarily assigned and have no greater meaning. (Sometimes identifiers are called "codes" even when they are actually arbitrary, whether because the speaker believes that they have deeper meaning or simply because he is speaking casually and imprecisely.) The unique identifier (UID) is an identifier that refers to only one instance—only one particular object in the universe
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Hyphen
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* Book
Book
* v * t * e The HYPHEN (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called HYPHENATION. Typographically, the hyphen should not be confused with dashes (‒ , – , — , ― ), which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign (
), which is also longer in some contexts. As an orthographic concept, the hyphen is a single entity. In terms of character encoding and display, that entity is represented by any of several characters and glyphs (including HARD HYPHENS, SOFT or OPTIONAL HYPHENS, and NONBREAKING HYPHENS), depending on the context of use (discussed below )
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Library Of Congress Subject Headings
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBJECT HEADINGS (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus (in the information science sense, a controlled vocabulary ) of subject headings , maintained by the United States Library of Congress , for use in bibliographic records. LC Subject Headings are an integral part of bibliographic control , which is the function by which libraries collect, organize and disseminate documents. LCSHs are applied to every item within a library’s collection, and facilitate a user’s access to items in the catalogue that pertain to similar subject matter. If users could only locate items by ‘title’ or other descriptive fields, such as ‘author’ or ‘publisher’, they would have to expend an enormous amount of time searching for items of related subject matter, and undoubtedly miss locating many items because of the ineffective and inefficient search capability. CONTENTS * 1 An art and a science * 2 LCSH policy issues * 2.1 Data access * 3 Using LCSH * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links AN ART AND A SCIENCE Subject heading classification is a human and intellectual endeavor, where trained professionals apply topic descriptions to items in their collections. Naturally, every library may choose to categorize the subject matter of their items differently, without a uniform consentaneous standard
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Authority Control
In library science , AUTHORITY CONTROL is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers. Cataloguers assign each subject—such as an author, book, series or corporation—a particular unique identifier or heading term which is then used consistently, uniquely, and unambiguously for all references to that same subject, even if there are variations such as different spellings, pen names , or aliases . The unique header can guide users to all relevant information including related or collocated subjects
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CODEN
CODEN – according to ASTM standard E250 – is a six character, alphanumeric bibliographic code , that provides concise, unique and unambiguous identification of the titles of periodicals and non-serial publications from all subject areas. CODEN became particularly common in the scientific community as a citation system for periodicals cited in technical and chemistry-related publications and as a search tool in many bibliographic catalogues. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current sources * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe CODEN, designed by Charles Bishop (Chronic Disease Research Institute at the University at Buffalo , State University of New York , retired), was initially thought as a memory aid for the publications in his reference collection. Bishop took initial letters of words from periodical titles thereby using a code, which helped him arranging the collected publications. In 1953 he published his documentation system, originally designed as a four letter CODEN system; volume and page numbers have been added, in order to cite and locate exactly an article in a magazine. Later, a variation was published 1957. After Bishop had assigned about 4,000 CODEN, the four letter CODEN system was further developed since 1961 by Dr. Kuentzel at the American Society for Testing of Material (ASTM). He also introduced the fifth character to CODEN
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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Wikidata
WIKIDATA is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as , and by anyone else, under a public domain licence. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase . CONTENTS * 1 Concepts * 2 Development history * 2.1 Phase 1 * 2.2 Phase 2 * 2.3 Phase 3 * 3 Reception * 4 Logo * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CONCEPTS Screenshots Three statements from Wikidata\'s item on the planet Mars. Values include links to other items and to Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
. A layout of the four main components of a phase-1 Wikidata
Wikidata
page: the label, description, aliases and interlanguage links. A article's list of interlanguage links as they appeared in an edit box (left) and on the article's page (right) prior to Wikidata
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress Card Number. It has also been called the