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Liberalism
Liberalism
Liberalism
is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.[1][2][3] Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality and international cooperation.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Liberalism
Liberalism
first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism
Liberalism
rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy and the divine right of kings
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Private Property
Private property
Private property
is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.[1] Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities.[2][3] Private property
Private property
can be either personal property (consumption goods) or capital goods. Private property is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system.[4]Contents1 History 2 Economics 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Gate with a private property sign.Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Equity Feminism
Equity feminism is a form of liberal feminism discussed since the 1980s,[1][2] specifically a kind of classically liberal or libertarian feminism.[3]Contents1 Overview 2 Theorists 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
refers to Wendy McElroy, Joan Kennedy Taylor, Cathy Young, Rita Simon, Katie Roiphe, Diana Furchtgott-Roth, Christine Stolba, and
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Geolibertarianism
Geolibertarianism
Geolibertarianism
is a political and economic ideology particularly committed to tax reform that integrates libertarianism with Georgism (alternatively geoism or geonomics). It is most often associated with left-libertarianism or the radical center.[1][2] Geolibertarians hold that geographical space and raw natural resources—any assets that qualify as land by economic definition—are rivalrous goods to be considered common property or more accurately unowned, which all individuals share an equal human right to access, not capital wealth to be privatized fully and absolutely. Therefore, landholders must pay compensation according to the rental value decided by the free market, absent any improvements, to the community for the civil right of usufruct (that is, legally recognized exclusive possession with restrictions on property abuse) or otherwise fee simple title with no such restrictions
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Civil And Political Rights
Civil and political rights
Civil and political rights
are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals
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Gender Equality
Gender
Gender
equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender. Gender
Gender
equality, equality between men and women, entails the concept that all human beings, both men and women, are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by stereotypes, rigid gender roles and prejudices. Gender
Gender
equality means that the different behaviour, aspirations and needs of women and men are considered, valued and favoured equally. It does not mean that women and men have to become the same, but that their rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female
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Freedom Of Speech
Freedom
Freedom
of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.[2][3][4][5] The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom
Freedom
of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR) and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(ICCPR)
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Freedom Of Religion
Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention. It also includes the freedom to change one's religion or belief.[1] Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
is considered by many people and most of the nations to be a fundamental human right.[2][3] In a country with a state religion, freedom of religion is generally considered to mean that the government permits religious practices of other sects besides the state religion, and does not persecute believers in other faiths. Freedom of belief is different
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Freedom Of The Press
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press
or freedom of the media is the principle that communicate and express through various mediums, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state; its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections. With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest
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Separation Of Church And State
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state. Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state.[1] In a society, the degree of political separation between the church and the civil state are determined by the legal structures and prevalent legal views that define the proper relationship between organized religion and the state. The arm's length principle proposes a relationship wherein the two political entities interact as organizations independent of the authority of the other
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Welfare State
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization.[1] The sociologist T.H. Marshall described the modern welfare state as a distinctive combination of democracy, welfare, and capitalism.[2] Modern welfare states include Germany, France, Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands,[3] as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland[4] which employ a system known as the Nordic model
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Natural And Legal Rights
Natural and legal rights
Natural and legal rights
are two types of rights. Natural rights are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs of any particular culture or government, and so are universal and inalienable (they cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws). Legal rights are those bestowed onto a person by a given legal system (they can be modified, repealed, and restrained by human laws). The concept of natural law is related to the concept of natural rights. Natural law
Natural law
first appeared in ancient Greek philosophy,[1] and was referred to by Roman philosopher
Roman philosopher
Cicero. It was subsequently alluded to in the Bible,[2] and then developed in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by Catholic philosophers such as Albert the Great
Albert the Great
and his pupil Thomas Aquinas
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Laissez-faire
Laissez-faire (/ˌlɛseɪˈfɛər/; French: [lɛsefɛʁ] ( listen); from French: laissez faire, lit. 'let do') is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies. The phrase laissez-faire is part of a larger French phrase and basically translates to "let (it/them) do", but in this context usually means to "let go".[1]Contents1 Etymology and usage 2 Fundamentals 3 History of laissez-faire debate3.1 Europe 3.2 United States4 Raw capitalism 5 Critiques 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further readingEtymology and usage[edit] The term laissez faire likely originated in a meeting that took place around 1681 between powerful French Comptroller-General of Finances Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
and a group of French businessmen headed by M. Le Gendre
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Rule Of Law
The rule of law is the principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by decisions of individual government officials. It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behaviour, including behaviour of government officials.[2] The phrase can be traced back to 16th century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford
Samuel Rutherford
used the phrase in his argument against the divine right of kings.[3] John Locke
John Locke
wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. The "rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey
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Social Contract
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment. Usually, the social contract concerns the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.[1] Social contract
Social contract
arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate (or to the decision of a majority), in exchange for protection of their remaining rights
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Internationalism (politics)
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.[1] Supporters of this principle are referred to as internationalists, and generally believe that the people of the world should unite across national, political, cultural, racial, or class boundaries to advance their common interests, or that the governments of the world should cooperate because their mutual long-term interests are of greater importance than their short-term disputes.Contents1 Origins 2 Socialism2.1 The International Workingmen's Association 2.2 The Socialist
Socialist
International 2.3 The Communist International 2.4 The Fourth International3 Modern expression3.1 International organizations and internationalism 3.2 Sovereign nations vs
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