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Liberal Christianity
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity
Christianity
from the late 18th century onward. Liberal does not refer to Progressive Christianity
Christianity
or to a political philosophy but to the philosophical and religious thought that developed and grew as a consequence of the Enlightenment. Liberal Christianity, broadly speaking, is a method of biblical hermeneutics, an undogmatic method of understanding God through the use of scripture by applying the same modern hermeneutics used to understand any ancient writings, symbols and scriptures. Liberal Christianity
Christianity
did not originate as a belief structure, and as such was not dependent upon any Church dogma or creedal doctrine. Unlike conservative varieties of Christianity, liberalism has no unified set of propositional beliefs
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Council Of Trent
The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(Latin: Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, or Trento, in northern Italy
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Alcuin
Alcuin
Alcuin
of York
York
(/ˈælkwɪn/;[1] Latin: Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; c. 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria. He was born around 735 and became the student of Archbishop Ecgbert at York. At the invitation of Charlemagne, he became a leading scholar and teacher at the Carolingian
Carolingian
court, where he remained a figure in the 780s and '90s. Alcuin
Alcuin
wrote many theological and dogmatic treatises, as well as a few grammatical works and a number of poems. He was made Abbot of Tours
Tours
in 796, where he remained until his death. "The most learned man anywhere to be found", according to Einhard's Life of Charlemagne[2] (ca. 817-833), he is considered among the most important architects of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Renaissance
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Council Of Ephesus
The Council of Ephesus
Ephesus
was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus
Ephesus
(near present-day Selçuk
Selçuk
in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II. This third ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom,[1] confirmed the original Nicene Creed,[2] and condemned the teachings of Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who held that the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
may be called the Christotokos, "Birth Giver of Christ" but not the Theotokos, "Birth Giver of God"
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Council Of Chalcedon
The Council of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
(/kælˈsiːdən, ˈkælsɪdɒn/)[1] was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon. The council is numbered as the fourth ecumenical council by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and most Protestants
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Predestination
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.[1] Explanations of predestination often seek to address the "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems incompatible with human free will
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Monophysitism
Monophysitism
Monophysitism
(/məˈnɒfɪsaɪtɪzəm/ or /məˈnɒfɪsɪtɪzəm/; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek [monofysitizˈmos] from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human
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Book Of Concord
The Book of Concord
Book of Concord
or Concordia (often, Lutheran Confessions is appended to or substituted for the title) (1580) is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism
Lutheranism
since the 16th century. They are also known as the symbolical books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.[1] The Book of Concord
Book of Concord
was published in German on June 25, 1580 in Dresden, the fiftieth anniversary of the presentation of the Augsburg Confession to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg. The authoritative Latin
Latin
edition was published in 1584 in Leipzig.[2] Those who accept it as their doctrinal standard recognize it to be a faithful exposition of the Bible
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Byzantine Iconoclasm
Byzantine Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm
(Greek: Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy. The "First Iconoclasm", as it is sometimes called, lasted between about 726 and 787. The "Second Iconoclasm" was between 814 and 842. According to the traditional view, Byzantine Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm
was started by a ban on religious images by Emperor Leo III
Emperor Leo III
and continued under his successors. It was accompanied by widespread destruction of images and persecution of supporters of the veneration of images
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Pope Gregory I
Pope
Pope
Saint
Saint
Gregory I (Latin: Gregorius I; c. 540 – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint
Saint
Gregory the Great,[1] was Pope
Pope
of the Catholic Church from 3 September 590 to 12 March 604. He is famous for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the Gregorian Mission, to convert a pagan people to Christianity.[2] Gregory is also well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope.[3] The epithet Saint Gregory the Dialogist has been attached to him in Eastern Christianity because of his Dialogues. English translations of Eastern texts sometimes list him as Gregory "Dialogos" or the Latin equivalent "Dialogus". A Roman senator's son and himself the Prefect of Rome
Rome
at 30, Gregory tried the monastery but soon returned to active public life, ending his life and the century as pope
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Photios I Of Constantinople
Photios I (Greek: Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), [a] also spelled Photius[3] (/ˈfoʊʃəs/) or Fotios, was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 858 to 867 and from 877 to 886;[4] He is recognized in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as St. Photios the Great. Photios is widely regarded as the most powerful and influential church leader of Constantinople
Constantinople
subsequent to John Chrysostom's archbishopric around the turn of the fifth century
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Augustine Of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430)[1] was an early Christian theologian
Christian theologian
and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in Western Christianity
Christianity
for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God, On Christian Doctrine
On Christian Doctrine
and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith".[note 1] In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism, later to neo-Platonism
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East–West Schism
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism
Schism
and the Schism
Schism
of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Roman
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Scholasticism
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalvte Scholasticism
Scholasticism
was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical method of philosophical analysis presupposed upon a Latin Christian theistic paradigm which dominated teaching in the medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700. It originated within the Christian monastic schools that were the basis of the earliest European universities.[1] The rise of scholasticism was closely associated with the rise of these 12th and 13th century schools that flourished in Italy, France, Spain
Spain
and England.[2] Scholasticism
Scholasticism
is not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, as it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions. Scholastic thought is also known for rigorous conceptual analysis and the careful drawing of distinctions
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Thomas Aquinas
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalvte Part of a series onChristianity JesusChrist Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion ResurrectionBibleFoundations Old Testament New Testament Gospel Canon Books Church Creed New CovenantTheology God Trinity Father Son Holy SpiritApologetics Baptism Christology History of theology Mission SalvationHistoryTradition Mary Apostolic Age Apostles Jewish Christian Peter Paul Ante-Nicene Period Church Fathers Constantine Councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Luther ReformationRelated topics Art Criticism Ecumenism Liturgy Music Other
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Anselm Of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury[a] (/ˈænsɛlm/), also called Anselm of Aosta (Italian: Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec (French: Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint; his feast day is 21 April. Beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the satisfaction theory of atonement. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI in 1720. As archbishop, he defended the church's interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy
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