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Liability (financial Accounting)
In financial accounting, a liability is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is obliged to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other past events,[1] the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future. A liability is defined by the following characteristics:Any type of borrowing from persons or banks for improving a business or personal income that is payable during short or long time; A duty or responsibility to others that entails settlement by future transfer or use of assets, provision of services, or other transaction yielding an economic benefit, at a specified or determinable date, on occurrence of a specified event, or on demand; A duty or responsibility that obligates the entity to another, leaving it little or no discretion to avoid settlement; and, A transaction or event obligating the entity that has already occurred<
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Depreciation
In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept:[1]The decrease in value of assets (fair value depreciation) The allocation of the cost of assets to periods in which the assets are used (depreciation with the matching principle) Depreciation
Depreciation
is a method of reallocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life span of it being in motion. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both tax and accounting purpose. The former affects the balance sheet of a business or entity, and the latter affects the net income that they report. Generally the cost is allocated, as depreciation expense, among the periods in which the asset is expected to be used. This expense is recognized by businesses for financial reporting and tax purposes. Methods of computing depreciation, and the periods over which assets are depreciated, may vary between asset types within the same business and may vary for tax purposes
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Annual Report
An annual report is a comprehensive report on a company's activities throughout the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other interested people information about the company's activities and financial performance. They may be considered as grey literature. Most jurisdictions require companies to prepare and disclose annual reports, and many require the annual report to be filed at the company's registry
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Unit Of Account
A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to represent the real value (or cost) of any economic item; i.e. goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses. It is one of three well-known functions of money.[1] It lends meaning to profits, losses, liability, or assets. A unit of account in financial accounting refers to the words that are used to describe the specific assets and liabilities that are reported in financial statements rather than the units used to measure them.[2] Unit of account and unit of measure are sometimes treated as synonyms in financial accounting and economics.[2] Historically, prices were often given in a dominant currency used as a unit of account, but transactions actually settled by using a variety of coins that were available, and often goods, all converted into their value in the unit of account
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Materiality (auditing)
Materiality is a concept or convention within auditing and accounting relating to the importance/significance of an amount, transaction, or discrepancy.[1] The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable the auditor to express an opinion whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in conformity with an identified financial reporting framework such as Generally Accepted Accounting
Accounting
Principles (GAAP). As a simple example, an expenditure of ten cents on paper is generally immaterial, and, if it were forgotten or recorded incorrectly, then no practical difference would result, even for a very small business. However, a transaction of many millions of dollars is almost always material, and if it were forgotten or recorded incorrectly, then financial managers, investors, and others would make incorrect decisions as a result of this error
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Profit (accounting)
Profit, in accounting, is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business). Profit is a measure of profitability which is the owner’s major interest in income formation process of market production. There are several profit measures in common use. Income
Income
formation in market production is always a balance between income generation and income distribution. The income generated is always distributed to the stakeholders of production as economic value within the review period. The profit is the share of income formation the owner is able to keep to himself/herself in the income distribution process. Profit is one of the major sources of economic well-being because it means incomes and opportunities to develop production
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Going Concern
A going concern is a business that functions without the threat of liquidation for the foreseeable future, usually regarded as at least within 12 months. It implies for the business the basic declaration of intention to keep running its activities at least for the next year, which is a basic assumption to prepare financial statements considering the conceptual framework of the IFRS
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Economic Entity
In accounting, an economic entity is one of the assumptions made in generally accepted accounting principles. Basically, any organization or unit in society can be an economic entity. Examples of economic entities are hospitals, companies, municipalities, and federal agencies. The " Economic entity assumption" states that the activities of the entity are to be kept separate from the activities of its owner and all other economic entities.[1] See also[edit]Piercing the corporate veilReferences[edit]^ Jerry J. Weygandt (2005). Hospitality Financial Accounting. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-0-471-27055-3. This economics-related article is a stub
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Amortization
Amortization (or amortisation; see spelling differences) is paying off an amount owed over time by making planned, incremental payments of principal and interest. To amortize a loan means "to kill it off".[1] In accounting, amortization refers to charging or writing off an intangible asset's cost as an operational expense over its estimated useful life to reduce a company's taxable income.[2][1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Applications of amortization 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The word comes from Middle English amortisen to kill, alienate in mortmain, from Anglo-French amorteser, alteration of amortir, from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
admortire "to kill", from Latin
Latin
ad- and mort-, "death". Applications of amortization[edit]When used in the context of a home purchase, amortization is the process by which loan principal decreases over the life of a loan, typically an amortizing loan
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Statement Of Changes In Equity
A Statement of changes in equity and similarly the statement of changes in owner's equity for a sole trader, statement of changes in partners' equity for a partnership, statement of changes in Shareholders' equity for a Company
Company
or statement of changes in Taxpayers' equity[1] for Government financial statements is one of the four basic financial statements. The statement explains the changes in a company's Share Capital, accumulated reserves and retained earnings over the reporting period. It breaks down changes in the owners' interest in the organization, and in the application of retained profit or surplus from one accounting period to the next. Line items typically include profits or losses from operations, dividends paid, issue or redemption of shares, revaluation reserve and any other items charged or credited to accumulated other comprehensive income
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Auditing
An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern. It also attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law. Auditing has become such a ubiquitous phenomenon in the corporate and the public sector that academics started identifying an " Audit
Audit
Society".[1] The auditor perceives and recognises the propositions before them for examination, obtains evidence, evaluates the same and formulates an opinion on the basis of his judgement which is communicated through their audit report.[2] Any subject matter may be audited
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Bookkeeping
Bookkeeping
Bookkeeping
is the recording of financial transactions, and is part of the process of accounting in business.[1] Transactions include purchases, sales, receipts, and payments by an individual person or an organization/corporation. There are several standard methods of bookkeeping, such as the single-entry bookkeeping system and the double-entry bookkeeping system, but, while they may be thought of as "real" bookkeeping, any process that involves the recording of financial transactions is a bookkeeping process. Bookkeeping
Bookkeeping
is usually performed by a bookkeeper. A bookkeeper (or book-keeper) is a person who records the day-to-day financial transactions of a business. They are usually responsible for writing the daybooks, which contain records of purchases, sales, receipts, and payments
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Cash Flow Statement
In financial accounting, a cash flow statement, also known as statement of cash flows,[1] is a financial statement that shows how changes in balance sheet accounts and income affect cash and cash equivalents, and breaks the analysis down to operating, investing and financing activities. Essentially, the cash flow statement is concerned with the flow of cash in and out of the business
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Management Accounting Principles
Management accounting
Management accounting
principles (MAP) were developed to serve the core needs of internal management to improve decision support objectives, internal business processes, resource application, customer value, and capacity utilization needed to achieve corporate goals in an optimal manner. Another term often used for management accounting principles for these purposes is managerial costing principles. The two management accounting principles are:Principle of Causality (i.e., the need for cause and effect insights) and, Principle of Analogy (i.e., the application of causal insights by management in their activities).These two principles serve the management accounting community and its customers – the management of businesses. The above principles are incorporated into the Managerial Costing Conceptual Framework (MCCF) along with concepts and constraints to help govern the management accounting practice
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International Standards On Auditing
International Standards on Auditing
Auditing
(ISA) are professional standards for the performance of financial audit of financial information. These standards are issued by International Federation of Accountants
International Federation of Accountants
(IFAC) through the International Auditing
Auditing
and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB)
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Convergence Of Accounting Standards
The convergence of accounting standards refers to the goal of establishing a single set of accounting standards that will be used internationally.[1] Convergence in some form has been taking place for several decades,[2] and efforts today include projects that aim to reduce the differences between accounting standards.[3] Convergence is driven by several factors, including the belief that having a single set of accounting requirements would increase the comparability of different entities' accounting numbers, which will contribute to the flow of international investment and benefit a variety of stakeholders.[1][4] Criticisms of convergence include its cost and pace,[5] and the idea that the link between convergence and comparability may not be strong.[6]Contents1 Overview1.1 European Union 1.2 United Kingdom 1.3 United States2 Motivation 3 Criticisms3.1 Nature of standards4 History4.1 1950s and 1960s 4.2 1970s and 1990s 4.3 2000s 4.4 201
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