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Li Hongzhang
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901), GCVO, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili, Huguang and Liangguang. Although he was best known in the West for his generally pro-modern stance and importance as a negotiator, Li antagonised the British with his support of Russia as a foil against Japanese expansionism in Manchuria
Manchuria
and fell from favour with the Chinese after their defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War. His image in China remains controversial, with criticism on one hand for political and military mistakes and praise on the other for his success against the Taiping Rebellion, his diplomatic skills defending Chinese interests in the era of unequal treaties, and his role pioneering China's industrial and military modernisation
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Hanlin Academy
The Hanlin Academy
Hanlin Academy
(Chinese: 翰林院; pinyin: Hànlín Yuàn; literally: "Brush Wood Court"; Manchu: bithei yamun) was an academic and administrative institution founded in the eighth-century Tang China by Emperor Xuanzong in Chang'an. Membership in the academy was confined to an elite group of scholars, who performed secretarial and literary tasks for the court. One of its main duties was to decide on an interpretation of the Chinese classics
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Queen Victoria
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III
King George III
died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power
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Manchuria
Manchuria
Manchuria
(simplified Chinese: 满洲; traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) was a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria
Manchuria
can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China[1][2][3] or a larger region divided between China
China
and Russia
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Viceroys In China
Zongdu (Tsung-tu; simplified Chinese: 总督; traditional Chinese: 總督; pinyin: Zǒngdū; Wade–Giles: Tsung3-tu1; Manchu: Uheri kadalara amban), usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General, governed one or more provinces of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The title was first used use during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). One of the most important was the Viceroy of Zhili (Chihli), since it encompassed the imperial capital. Yuan Shikai, later president of Republican China, held this office.Contents1 Ming Dynasty 2 Qing Dynasty 3 References 4 Further readingMing Dynasty[edit] During the Ming Dynasty, the post of zongdu was originally an ad hoc appointment for military inspectors, especially along the northern border. As a temporary appointment, it had no fixed rank within the nine-rank system
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Romanisation
Romanization
Romanization
(also spelled romanisation: see spelling differences), in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both
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Friedrichsruh
Friedrichsruh
Friedrichsruh
is a district in the municipality of Aumühle, Herzogtum Lauenburg district, Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany. Friedrichsruh
Friedrichsruh
manor is known as a residence of the Bismarck noble family, mainly of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
from 1871 onwards. History[edit] In the 18th century, the extended Sachsenwald
Sachsenwald
forest in Saxe-Lauenburg east of Hamburg
Hamburg
was a favoured hunting ground for Count Frederick of Lippe (1706–1781). In 1763 he had a lodge erected in the woods, named Friedrichsruh
Friedrichsruh
("Frederick's Rest"), which upon his death changed hands several times
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Otto Von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg
Duke of Lauenburg
(1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
(German: [ˈɔtoː fɔn ˈbɪsmark] ( listen)), was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890. In 1862, King Wilhelm I
Wilhelm I
appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890, with the exception of a short break in 1873. He provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark, Austria, and France
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George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon Of Kedleston
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC, FBA (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston
Kedleston
between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston
Kedleston
between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman. Curzon was Viceroy of India
Viceroy of India
from 1899 to 1905, during which time he created the territory of Eastern Bengal and Assam. After returning to Britain, he served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
from 1919 to 1924. In the negotiations after World War I, he proposed the Curzon Line, which later became the border between Poland and the Soviet Union. Curzon was passed over as Prime Minister in 1923 in favour of Stanley Baldwin
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Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess Of Salisbury
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC, FRS, DL (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne
Viscount Cranborne
from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years. He was the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords. Lord Robert Cecil was first elected to the House of Commons in 1854 and served as Secretary of State for India
Secretary of State for India
in Lord Derby's Conservative government from 1866 until his resignation in 1867 over its introduction of Benjamin Disraeli's Reform Bill that extended the suffrage to working-class men. In 1868 upon the death of his father, Cecil was elevated to the House of Lords
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Chinese Name
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora
Chinese diaspora
overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences. Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as xing (姓, xìng), which comes first and is usually but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called ming (名, míng), which is nearly always mono- or disyllabic
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Nanjing
Nanjing
Nanjing
( listen), formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin,[3] is the capital of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in t
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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