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Levonantradol
Levonantradol
Levonantradol
(CP 50,556-1) is a synthetic cannabinoid analog of dronabinol (Marinol) developed by Pfizer
Pfizer
in the 1980s. It is around 30x more potent than THC, and exhibits antiemetic and analgesic effects via activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.[1] Levonantradol
Levonantradol
is not currently used in medicine as dronabinol or nabilone are felt to be more useful for most conditions, however it is widely used in research into the potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids.[2][3][4]Contents1 Pharmacodynamics 2 Pharmacokinetics 3 Treatment 4 Side effects 5 Synthesis 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesPharmacodynamics[edit] Levonantradol
Levonantradol
is a full CB1 receptor agonist
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Ethyl Formate
Ethyl formate is an ester formed when ethanol (an alcohol) reacts with formic acid (a carboxylic acid). Ethyl formate has the characteristic smell of rum and is also partially responsible for the flavor of raspberries.[3] It occurs naturally in the body of ants and in the stingers of bees. [4] Exposure[edit] Ethyl formate is generally recognized as safe by the U.S
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Blood-brain Barrier
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).[1] The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. Furthermore, it prevents the entry of lipophilic potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. Astrocytes
Astrocytes
have been claimed to be necessary to create the blood–brain barrier
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Nociceptive
Nociception
Nociception
(also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Ethyl Acetoacetate
The organic compound ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) is the ethyl ester of acetoacetic acid. It is mainly used as a chemical intermediate in the production of a wide variety of compounds, such as amino acids, analgesics, antibiotics, antimalarial agents, antipyrine and aminopyrine, and vitamin B1; as well as the manufacture of dyes, inks, lacquers, perfumes, plastics, and yellow paint pigments. Alone, it is used as a flavoring for food.Contents1 Preparation 2 Reactivity 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksPreparation[edit] Ethyl acetoacetate
Ethyl acetoacetate
is produced industrially by treatment of diketene with ethanol.[1] The preparation of ethyl acetoacetate is a classic laboratory procedure.[2] It is prepared via the Claisen condensation
Claisen condensation
of ethyl acetate
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Synthon
In retrosynthetic analysis, a synthon is a destructural[clarification needed] unit within a molecule which is related to a possible synthetic operation. The term was coined in 1967 by E.J. Corey.[1] He noted in 1988 that the "word synthon has now come to be used to mean synthetic building block rather than retrosynthetic fragmentation structures".[2] It was noted in 1998 [3] that the phrase did not feature very prominently in Corey's 1981 book, The Logic of Chemical Synthesis,[4] as it was not included in the index.Contents1 Example 2 Alternative use in Synthetic Oligonucleotides 3 Carbanionic synthons 4 Carbocationic synthons 5 ReferencesExample[edit]In planning the synthesis of phenylacetic acid, two synthons are identified: a nucleophilic "COOH−" group, and an electrophilic "PhCH2+" group. Of course, both synthons do not exist per se; synthetic equivalents corresponding to the synthons are reacted to produce the desired reactant
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Ethyl Chloroformate
Ethyl chloroformate
Ethyl chloroformate
is the ethyl ester of chloroformic acid. It is a reagent used in organic synthesis for the introduction of the ethyl carbamate protecting group[2] and for the formation of carboxylic anhydrides. References[edit]^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 3742. ^ Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, Third Edition, Theodora W. Greene and Peter G. M
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Polyphosphoric Acid
There are various kinds of phosphoric acids and phosphates. Of the many phosphorus oxoacids, the phosphoric acids constitute the largest and most diverse group. The simplest phosphoric acid series begins with monophosphoric (orthophosphoric) acid, continues with many oligophosphoric acids such as diphosphoric (pyrophosphoric) acid and concludes in the polyphosphoric acids. But, phosphoric acid units can bind together into rings or cyclic structures, chains (catenas), or branched structures, with various combinations possible
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Michael Addition
The Michael reaction
Michael reaction
or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile[1][2] to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound. It belongs to the larger class of conjugate additions. This is one of the most useful methods for the mild formation of C–C bonds.[3] Many asymmetric variants exist.[4][5]In this scheme the R and R' substituents on the nucleophile (a Michael donor) are electron-withdrawing groups such as acyl and cyano making the methylene hydrogen acidic forming the carbanion on reaction with base B:
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Adenylyl Cyclase
Adenylyl cyclase
Adenylyl cyclase
(EC 4.6.1.1, also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells. It is the most polyphyletic known enzyme: six distinct classes have been described, all catalyzing the same reaction but representing unrelated gene families with no known sequence or structural homology. The best known class of adenylyl cyclases is class III or AC-III (Roman numerals are used for classes). AC-III occurs widely in eukaryotes and has important roles in many human tissues. All classes of adenylyl cyclases catalyse the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) and pyrophosphate. Magnesium
Magnesium
ions are generally required and appears to be closely involved in the enzymatic mechanism
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Methyl Vinyl Ketone
Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK, IUPAC name: butenone) is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH=CH2. It is a reactive compound classified as an enone, in fact the simplest example thereof. It is a colorless, flammable, highly toxic liquid with a pungent odor. It is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. It is a useful intermediate in the synthesis of other compounds.[2]Contents1 Production 2 Reactivity and applications 3 Safety 4 References 5 External linksProduction[edit] MVK has been prepared industrially by the condensation of acetone and formaldehyde, followed by dehydration
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Robinson Annulation
The Robinson annulation
Robinson annulation
is a chemical reaction used in organic chemistry for ring formation. It was discovered by Robert Robinson in 1935 as a method to create a six membered ring by forming three new carbon–carbon bonds.[1] The method uses a ketone and a methyl vinyl ketone to form an α,β-unsaturated ketone in a cyclohexane ring by a Michael addition
Michael addition
followed by an aldol condensation
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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