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Levin Kipnis
LEVIN KIPNIS ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: לֶוִין קִיפְּנִיס‎; 1 August 1894 – 20 June 1990) was an Israeli children\'s author and poet who wrote mainly in Hebrew
Hebrew
and Yiddish . He won the Israel prize in 1978. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards and honors * 3 Bibliography * 3.1 Books Published in Hebrew
Hebrew
* 3.1.1 Children * 3.2 Books in Translation * 4 See also * 5 References BIOGRAPHYKipnis was born in Ushomir in Volhynian Governorate which was part of the Pale of Settlement of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(now in Ukraine
Ukraine
), into a family of 12. His father, Pessach, who was a shaliach tzibbur , sent him to study in a Cheder , which he didn't like because of the strict discipline. He showed a passion for the arts from a young age, painting and woodcarving. His father, who saw his potential, encouraged him to become a sofer stam . He wrote mezuzot to provide additional income for the family. He decided to become a writer at the age of 13, after seeing the Hebrew
Hebrew
children's magazine "Haprachim" ("the flowers"). In his attic, he wrote, illustrated and produced his own magazine, later submitting one of his stories, "the sick child" to the children's magazine. The story was published in 1910
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Firstborn
A FIRSTBORN (also known as an ELDEST CHILD or sometimes FIRSTLING) is the first child born to in the birth order of a couple through childbirth . Historically, the role of the first born child has been socially significant, particularly for a first born son in patriarchal societies. In law, many systems have incorporated the concept of primogeniture , wherein the first-born child inherits their parent's property. The firstborn in Judaism , the bechor, is also accorded a special position. While an only child will by definition also always be the "firstborn", in larger families the firstborn often perceives himself or herself to be treated differently from later children. Alfred Adler (1870–1937), an Austrian psychiatrist , and a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung , was one of the first theorists to suggest that birth order influences personality in the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century . He argued that birth order can leave an indelible impression on an individual's style of life, which is one's habitual way of dealing with the tasks of friendship, love, and work. According to Adler, firstborns are "dethroned" when a second child comes along, and this may have a lasting influence on them. Younger and only children may be pampered and spoiled, which can also affect their later personalities
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Children's Literature
CHILDREN\'S LITERATURE or JUVENILE LITERATURE includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature
Children's literature
can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition , that adults shared with children before publishing existed. The development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. Even after printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were originally created for adults and later adapted for a younger audience. Since the 15th century, a large quantity of literature, often with a moral or religious message, has been aimed specifically at children
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Children's Poetry
CHILDREN\'S POETRY is poetry written for , or appropriate for children . This may include folk poetry (for example, Mother Goose rhymes ); poetry written intentionally for young people (e.g. Shel Silverstein ); poetry written originally for adults, but appropriate for young people ( Ogden Nash
Ogden Nash
); and poems taken from prose works ( Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
, Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
). CONTENTS * 1 Notable Children\'s Poets * 2 Further reading * 3 References * 4 External links NOTABLE CHILDREN\'S POETS This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) * DR
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Hebrew
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Yiddish
YIDDISH (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, _yidish_/_idish_, lit. "Jewish ", pronounced ; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש _Yidish-Taitsh_, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews . It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe , providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic , as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages . Yiddish is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew alphabet . The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (_loshn-ashknaz_, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (_taytsh_), a variant of _tiutsch_, the contemporary name for Middle High German . Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון (_mame-loshn_, lit. "mother tongue"), distinguishing it from לשון־קדש (_loshn koydesh _, "holy tongue"), meaning Hebrew and Aramaic. The term "Yiddish", short for _Yidish Taitsh_ "Jewish German", did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more commonly called "Jewish", especially in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation. Modern Yiddish has two major forms
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Israel Prize
The ISRAEL PRIZE (Hebrew : פרס ישראל‎) is an award handed out by the State of Israel
Israel
and is generally regarded as the state's highest cultural honor. It is presented annually, on Israeli Independence Day , in a state ceremony in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, in the presence of the President , the Prime Minister , the Speaker of the Knesset (Israel's legislature), and the Supreme Court President. The prize was established in 1953 at the initiative of the Minister of Education Ben-Zion Dinor , who himself went on to win the prize in 1958 and 1973. CONTENTS * 1 Awarding the prize * 2 Recipients * 3 Controversy * 4 Venue * 5 In popular culture * 6 References * 7 External links AWARDING THE PRIZEThe prize is awarded in the following four areas, with the precise subfields changing from year to year in a cycle of 4 to 7 years, except for the last area, which is awarded annually: * the humanities, social sciences, and Jewish
Jewish
studies * the natural and exact sciences * culture, arts, communication and sports * lifetime achievement and exceptional contribution to the nation (since 1972)The recipients of the prize are Israeli citizens or organizations who have displayed excellence in their field(s), or have contributed strongly to Israeli culture
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Volhynian Governorate
Coat of arms CAPITAL Novograd-Volynsky Zhytomyr (officially since 1804) HISTORY • Transformed into Volhynian Governorate 1797 • Peace of Riga • abolished (Okruhas of Ukraine ) 1 August 1925 AREA • 1897 42.000 km2 (16 sq mi) POPULATION • 1897 2,989,482 Density 71,178.1 /km2 (184,350.5 /sq mi) POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS Governorates of Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Polish occupied territories of Volhynian and Podolian governorates VOLHYNIAN GOVERNORATE (Russian : Волынская губерния, Ukrainian : Волинська губернія) was an administrative-territorial unit initially of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, created at the end of 1796 after the Third Partition of Poland from the territory of the short-lived Volhynian Vice-royalty and Wołyń Voivodeship . After the Peace of Riga , part of the governorate became the new Wołyń Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
, while the other part stayed as a part of the Ukrainian SSR until 1925
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Pale Of Settlement
The PALE OF SETTLEMENT (Russian : Черта́ осе́длости, _chertá osédlosti_, Yiddish : דער תּחום-המושבֿ‎, _der tkhum-ha-moyshəv_, Hebrew : תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב‎, _tẖum hammosháv_) was a western region of Imperial Russia
Russia
with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was mostly forbidden. However, Jews were excluded from residency in a number of cities within the Pale, and a limited number of categories of Jews—those ennobled, with university educations or at university, members of the most affluent of the merchant guilds and particular artisans , some military personnel and some services associated with them, as well as the families, and sometimes the servants of these—were allowed to live outside it. The archaic English term _pale_ is derived from the Latin
Latin
word _palus_, a stake, extended to mean the area enclosed by a fence or boundary. _ The Pale
The Pale
of Settlement_ included much of present-day Lithuania
Lithuania
; Belarus
Belarus
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, Moldova
Moldova
, and Poland
Poland
( East-Central Europe ); a part of eastern Latvia
Latvia
and parts of western Russia
Russia

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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (also known as RUSSIA) was an empire that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917 . One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire
Empire
from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov , ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire
Empire
extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea
Black Sea
in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census , it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India
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Ukraine
UKRAINE (/juːˈkreɪn/ (_ listen ); Ukrainian : Україна, tr. Ukraina_ ), sometimes called THE UKRAINE , is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe , bordered by Russia
Russia
to the east, northeast, and south, Belarus
Belarus
to the northwest, Poland
Poland
and Slovakia
Slovakia
to the west, Hungary
Hungary
, Romania
Romania
, and Moldova
Moldova
to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. Ukraine
Ukraine
is currently in territorial dispute with Russia
Russia
over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia
Russia
annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine
Ukraine
and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine
Ukraine
has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe
Europe
and the 46th largest country in the world. It has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world
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Shaliach Tzibbur
A HAZZAN or CHAZZAN (Hebrew : חַזָּן‎‎ ħazzān, Yiddish KHAZN Ladino HASSAN) is a Jewish
Jewish
musician, or precentor , trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer . In English, this prayer-leader is often referred to as cantor , a term also used in Christianity . CONTENTS * 1 Shaliah tzibbur: the role of the hazzan * 2 Growing importance * 3 Qualifications * 4 Female cantors in non-Orthodox Judaism * 5 Professional status * 5.1 Training * 6 Golden age * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links SHALIAH TZIBBUR: THE ROLE OF THE HAZZANThe person leading the congregation in public prayers is called the shaliach tzibbur (Hebrew for "emissary of the congregation"), a ħazzān or cantor. Jewish
Jewish
law restricts the role to adult Jews. See also: Cantor
Cantor
in Reform Judaism . In theory, any lay person can be a sheliach tzibbur; most synagogue-attending Jews
Jews
will serve in this role every now and again. One who cannot or doesn't pronounce his words properly, including merging pharyngeals with glottals or uvulars, shouldn't be appointed unless no one else better is available. In practice, those with the best voice and the most knowledge of the prayers serve much more often
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Cheder
A CHEDER (alternatively, CHEIDER, in Hebrew : חדר‎, lit. "room") is a traditional elementary school teaching the basics of Judaism
Judaism
and the Hebrew language . HISTORYCheders were widely found in Europe before the end of the 18th century. Lessons took place in the house of the teacher, known as a Melamed , whose wages were paid by the Jewish community or a group of parents. Normally, only boys would attend classes—girls were educated by their mothers in their homes. Where money was scarce and the community could not afford to maintain many teachers, boys of all ages would be taught in a single group. Although traditionally boys start learning the Hebrew alphabet the day they turned three, boys typically entered cheder school around the age of 5. After learning to read Hebrew , they would immediately begin studying the Torah
Torah
, starting with Leviticus and the five books of Moses. They would usually start learning Mishna at around 7 years of age and the Talmud
Talmud
( Mishna , Gemara , and additional commentaries) as soon they had mastered the Mishna. Reading out loud to each other and rote learning were the main techniques used to teach these complicated studies. At the age of 13 or 14, the end of a boy's education at the cheder would be marked by his bar mitzvah
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Sofer Stam
A SOFER, SOPHER, SOFER SETAM, or SOFER ST"M (Heb: "scribe", סופר סת״ם‎) (female: soferet, plural: soferim) is a Jewish scribe who can transcribe sifrei Torah , tefillin and mezuzot , and other religious writings. (ST"M, סת״ם‎, is an abbreviation of these three terms. The plural of sofer is "soferim" סופרים‎.) By simple definition, a sofer is a copyist , but the religious role in Judaism is much more. Besides sifrei Torah, tefillin, and mezuzot, scribes are also necessary to write the Five Megillot
Five Megillot
(scrolls of the Song of Songs , Book of Ruth , Book of Esther , Ecclesiastes , and Book of Lamentations ), Nevi\'im (the books of the prophets, used for reading the haftarah ), and for gittin , divorce documents. Also, many scribes function as calligraphers—writing functional documents such as ketubot "marriage contracts", or ornamental and artistic renditions of religious texts, which do not require any scribal qualifications and to which the rules on lettering and parchment specifications do not apply. The major halakha pertaining to sofrut, the practice of scribal arts, is in the Talmud in the tractate "Maseket Sofrim ". In the Torah's 613 commandments , the second to last is that every Jew should write a Sefer Torah in their lifetime
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Mezuzah
A _MEZUZAH_ (Hebrew : מְזוּזָה‎ "doorpost"; plural: מְזוּזוֹת‎ _MEZUZOT_) comprises a piece of parchment called a _KLAF _ contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah
Torah
(Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21). These verses consist of the Jewish prayer " Shema
Shema
Yisrael ", beginning with the phrase: "Hear, O Israel, the LORD (is) our God, the LORD is One". In mainstream Rabbinic Judaism , a _mezuzah_ is affixed to the doorpost of Jewish homes to fulfill the mitzvah (Biblical commandment) to "write the words of God on the gates and doorposts of your house" (Deuteronomy 6:9). Some interpret Jewish law to require a _mezuzah_ in every doorway in the home except bathrooms (which is not a living space), laundry rooms and closets, if they are too small to qualify as rooms. The klaf parchment is prepared by a qualified scribe ("_sofer stam _") who has undergone many years of meticulous training, and the verses are written in black indelible ink with