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Levin Kipnis
LEVIN KIPNIS ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: לֶוִין קִיפְּנִיס‎; 1 August 1894 – 20 June 1990) was an Israeli children\'s author and poet who wrote mainly in Hebrew
Hebrew
and Yiddish . He won the Israel prize in 1978. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards and honors * 3 Bibliography * 3.1 Books Published in Hebrew
Hebrew
* 3.1.1 Children * 3.2 Books in Translation * 4 See also * 5 References BIOGRAPHYKipnis was born in Ushomir in Volhynian Governorate which was part of the Pale of Settlement of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(now in Ukraine
Ukraine
), into a family of 12. His father, Pessach, who was a shaliach tzibbur , sent him to study in a Cheder , which he didn't like because of the strict discipline. He showed a passion for the arts from a young age, painting and woodcarving
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Firstborn
A FIRSTBORN (also known as an ELDEST CHILD or sometimes FIRSTLING) is the first child born to in the birth order of a couple through childbirth . Historically, the role of the first born child has been socially significant, particularly for a first born son in patriarchal societies. In law, many systems have incorporated the concept of primogeniture , wherein the first-born child inherits their parent's property. The firstborn in Judaism , the bechor, is also accorded a special position. While an only child will by definition also always be the "firstborn", in larger families the firstborn often perceives himself or herself to be treated differently from later children. Alfred Adler (1870–1937), an Austrian psychiatrist , and a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung , was one of the first theorists to suggest that birth order influences personality in the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt
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Children's Literature
CHILDREN\'S LITERATURE or JUVENILE LITERATURE includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature
Children's literature
can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition , that adults shared with children before publishing existed. The development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. Even after printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were originally created for adults and later adapted for a younger audience. Since the 15th century, a large quantity of literature, often with a moral or religious message, has been aimed specifically at children
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Children's Poetry
CHILDREN\'S POETRY is poetry written for , or appropriate for children . This may include folk poetry (for example, Mother Goose rhymes ); poetry written intentionally for young people (e.g. Shel Silverstein ); poetry written originally for adults, but appropriate for young people ( Ogden Nash
Ogden Nash
); and poems taken from prose works ( Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
, Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
). CONTENTS * 1 Notable Children\'s Poets * 2 Further reading * 3 References * 4 External links NOTABLE CHILDREN\'S POETS This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) * DR
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Hebrew
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt
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Yiddish
YIDDISH (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, _yidish_/_idish_, lit. "Jewish ", pronounced ; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש _Yidish-Taitsh_, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews . It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe , providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic , as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages . Yiddish is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew alphabet . The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (_loshn-ashknaz_, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (_taytsh_), a variant of _tiutsch_, the contemporary name for Middle High German . Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון (_mame-loshn_, lit
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Israel Prize
The ISRAEL PRIZE (Hebrew : פרס ישראל‎) is an award handed out by the State of Israel
Israel
and is generally regarded as the state's highest cultural honor. It is presented annually, on Israeli Independence Day , in a state ceremony in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, in the presence of the President , the Prime Minister , the Speaker of the Knesset (Israel's legislature), and the Supreme Court President. The prize was established in 1953 at the initiative of the Minister of Education Ben-Zion Dinor , who himself went on to win the prize in 1958 and 1973
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Volhynian Governorate
Coat of arms CAPITAL Novograd-Volynsky Zhytomyr (officially since 1804) HISTORY • Transformed into Volhynian Governorate 1797 • Peace of Riga • abolished (Okruhas of Ukraine ) 1 August 1925 AREA • 1897 42.000 km2 (16 sq mi) POPULATION • 1897 2,989,482 Density 71,178.1 /km2 (184,350.5 /sq mi) POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS Governorates of Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Polish occupied territories of Volhynian and Podolian governorates VOLHYNIAN GOVERNORATE (Russian : Волынская губерния, Ukrainian : Волинська губернія) was an administrative-territorial unit initially of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, created at the end of 1796 after the Third Partition of Poland from the territory of the short-lived Volhynian Vice-royalty and Wołyń Voivodeship
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Pale Of Settlement
The PALE OF SETTLEMENT (Russian : Черта́ осе́длости, _chertá osédlosti_, Yiddish : דער תּחום-המושבֿ‎, _der tkhum-ha-moyshəv_, Hebrew : תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב‎, _tẖum hammosháv_) was a western region of Imperial Russia
Russia
with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was mostly forbidden. However, Jews were excluded from residency in a number of cities within the Pale, and a limited number of categories of Jews—those ennobled, with university educations or at university, members of the most affluent of the merchant guilds and particular artisans , some military personnel and some services associated with them, as well as the families, and sometimes the servants of these—were allowed to live outside it
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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (also known as RUSSIA) was an empire that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917 . One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire
Empire
from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov , ruled from 1762
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Ukraine
UKRAINE (/juːˈkreɪn/ (_ listen ); Ukrainian : Україна, tr. Ukraina_ ), sometimes called THE UKRAINE , is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe , bordered by Russia
Russia
to the east, northeast, and south, Belarus
Belarus
to the northwest, Poland
Poland
and Slovakia
Slovakia
to the west, Hungary
Hungary
, Romania
Romania
, and Moldova
Moldova
to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively
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Shaliach Tzibbur
A HAZZAN or CHAZZAN (Hebrew : חַזָּן‎‎ ħazzān, Yiddish KHAZN Ladino HASSAN) is a Jewish
Jewish
musician, or precentor , trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer . In English, this prayer-leader is often referred to as cantor , a term also used in Christianity . CONTENTS * 1 Shaliah tzibbur: the role of the hazzan * 2 Growing importance * 3 Qualifications * 4 Female cantors in non-Orthodox Judaism * 5 Professional status * 5.1 Training * 6 Golden age * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links SHALIAH TZIBBUR: THE ROLE OF THE HAZZANThe person leading the congregation in public prayers is called the shaliach tzibbur (Hebrew for "emissary of the congregation"), a ħazzān or cantor. Jewish
Jewish
law restricts the role to adult Jews. See also: Cantor
Cantor
in Reform Judaism
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Cheder
A CHEDER (alternatively, CHEIDER, in Hebrew : חדר‎, lit. "room") is a traditional elementary school teaching the basics of Judaism
Judaism
and the Hebrew language . HISTORYCheders were widely found in Europe before the end of the 18th century. Lessons took place in the house of the teacher, known as a Melamed , whose wages were paid by the Jewish community or a group of parents. Normally, only boys would attend classes—girls were educated by their mothers in their homes. Where money was scarce and the community could not afford to maintain many teachers, boys of all ages would be taught in a single group. Although traditionally boys start learning the Hebrew alphabet the day they turned three, boys typically entered cheder school around the age of 5. After learning to read Hebrew , they would immediately begin studying the Torah
Torah
, starting with Leviticus and the five books of Moses
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Sofer Stam
A SOFER, SOPHER, SOFER SETAM, or SOFER ST"M (Heb: "scribe", סופר סת״ם‎) (female: soferet, plural: soferim) is a Jewish scribe who can transcribe sifrei Torah , tefillin and mezuzot , and other religious writings. (ST"M, סת״ם‎, is an abbreviation of these three terms. The plural of sofer is "soferim" סופרים‎.) By simple definition, a sofer is a copyist , but the religious role in Judaism is much more. Besides sifrei Torah, tefillin, and mezuzot, scribes are also necessary to write the Five Megillot
Five Megillot
(scrolls of the Song of Songs , Book of Ruth , Book of Esther , Ecclesiastes , and Book of Lamentations ), Nevi\'im (the books of the prophets, used for reading the haftarah ), and for gittin , divorce documents
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Mezuzah
A _MEZUZAH_ (Hebrew : מְזוּזָה‎ "doorpost"; plural: מְזוּזוֹת‎ _MEZUZOT_) comprises a piece of parchment called a _KLAF _ contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah
Torah
(Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21). These verses consist of the Jewish prayer " Shema
Shema
Yisrael ", beginning with the phrase: "Hear, O Israel, the LORD (is) our God, the LORD is One". In mainstream Rabbinic Judaism , a _mezuzah_ is affixed to the doorpost of Jewish homes to fulfill the mitzvah (Biblical commandment) to "write the words of God on the gates and doorposts of your house" (Deuteronomy 6:9). Some interpret Jewish law to require a _mezuzah_ in every doorway in the home except bathrooms (which is not a living space), laundry rooms and closets, if they are too small to qualify as rooms
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