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Levantine Arabic
LEVANTINE ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: اللهجة الشامية‎‎, ʾal-lahǧatu š-šāmiyyah, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in the 100 to 200 kilometre-wide Eastern Mediterranean coastal strip. It is considered one of the five major varieties of Arabic. In the frame of the general diglossia status of the Arab world, Levantine Arabic
Arabic
is used for daily spoken use, while most of the written and official documents and media use Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Geographical distribution * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links CLASSIFICATIONLevantine Arabic
Arabic
is most closely related to North Mesopotamian Arabic , Anatolian Arabic, and Cypriot Arabic
Arabic

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Velar Consonant
VELARS are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum ) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the VELUM ). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation , shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels. They often become automatically fronted, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and retracted, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as PALATOVELARS. Many languages also have labialized velars, such as , in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips. There are also labial-velar consonants , which are doubly articulated at the velum and at the lips, such as
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Palatal Consonant
PALATAL CONSONANTS are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Distinction from palatalized consonants and consonant clusters * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References CHARACTERISTICSThe most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant , which ranks as among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages. The nasal is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages, in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the stop , but the affricate . Only a few languages in northern Eurasia, the Americas and central Africa contrast palatal stops with postalveolar affricates - as in Hungarian , Czech , Latvian , Macedonian , Slovak , Turkish and Albanian
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Pharyngeal Consonant
A PHARYNGEAL CONSONANT is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx . Some phoneticians distinguish upper pharyngeal consonants, or "high" pharyngeals, pronounced by retracting the root of the tongue in the mid to upper pharynx, from (ary)epiglottal consonants, or "low" pharyngeals, which are articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis in the lower larynx, as well as from epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants, with both movements being combined. Stops and trills can be reliably produced only at the epiglottis, and fricatives can be reliably produced only in the upper pharynx. When they are treated as distinct places of articulation, the term radical consonant may be used as a cover term, or the term guttural consonants may be used instead. In many languages, pharyngeal consonants trigger advancement of neighboring vowels. Pharyngeals thus differ from uvulars , which nearly always trigger retraction
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Glottal Consonant
GLOTTAL CONSONANTS are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative , to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic , most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/. The glottal consonants /h/ and /ʔ/ can occupy any of the three root consonant slots, just like "normal" consonants such as /k/ or /n/
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Emphatic Consonant
In Semitic linguistics , an EMPHATIC CONSONANT is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents . In specific Semitic languages , the members of this series may be realized as uvularized or pharyngealized , velarized , ejective , or plain voiced or voiceless consonants . It is also used, to a lesser extent, to describe cognate series in other Afro-Asiatic languages , where they are typically realized as either ejective or implosive consonants . In Semitic studies , they are commonly transcribed using the convention of placing a dot under the closest plain obstruent consonant in the Latin alphabet . With respect to particular Semitic and Afro-Asiatic languages , this term describes the particular phonetic feature which distinguishes these consonants from other consonants
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Denti-alveolar Consonant
In linguistics , a DENTI-ALVEOLAR CONSONANT or DENTO-ALVEOLAR CONSONANT is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as /t/ and /d/ in languages such as Spanish and French. That is, a denti-alveolar consonant is one that is alveolar and laminal . Although denti-alveolar consonants are often labeled as "dental " because only the forward contact with the teeth is visible, the point of contact of the tongue that is farthest back is most relevant, defines the maximum acoustic space of resonance and gives a characteristic sound to a consonant. In French , the contact that is farthest back is alveolar or sometimes slightly pre-alveolar. Spanish /t/ and /d/ are laminal denti-alveolar, and /l/ and /n/ are alveolar but assimilate to a following /t/ or /d/. Similarly, Italian /t/, /d/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/ are denti-alveolar, and /l/ and /n/ are alveolar. The dental clicks are also laminal denti-alveolar
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Labial Consonant
LABIAL CONSONANTS are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator . The two common labial articulations are bilabials , articulated using both lips, and labiodentals , articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English . A third labial articulation is dentolabials , articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials , in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals , though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants. The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops , , , and , are bilabial and the fricatives , , and , are labiodental. Bilabial fricatives and the bilabial approximant do not exist in English , but they occur in many languages
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Palmyra
PALMYRA (/ˌpɑːlˈmaɪrə/ ; Palmyrene : Tadmor; Arabic
Arabic
: تَدْمُر‎‎ Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate , Syria
Syria
. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, and the city was first documented in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra
Palmyra
changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD. The city grew wealthy from trade caravans; the Palmyrenes were renowned merchants who established colonies along the Silk Road
Silk Road
and operated throughout the Roman Empire. Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade , the Temple of Bel , and the distinctive tower tombs
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Damascus
DAMASCUS (Arabic : دمشق‎‎ Dimashq , Syrian : ) is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria
Syria
, following the decline in population of Aleppo
Aleppo
due to the battle for the city . It is commonly known in Syria
Syria
as ash-Sham (Arabic : الشام‎‎ ash-Shām) and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine (Arabic : مدينة الياسمين‎‎ Madīnat al-Yāsmīn). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus
Damascus
is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant
Levant
. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009 . Located in south-western Syria, Damascus
Damascus
is the centre of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people (2004)
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Baghdad
BAGHDAD ( Arabic
Arabic
: بغداد‎, ( listen )) is the capital of Iraq . The population of Baghdad, as of 2016 , is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran
Tehran
, Iran
Iran
). Located along the Tigris River , the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Najd
NAJD or NEJD ( Arabic
Arabic
: نجد ‎‎, Najd) is the geographical central region of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in which 28% of Saudis live. Najd consists of the regions of Riyadh
Riyadh
, al-Qassim , and Ha\'il . Najdis were sometimes referred to in the past as the "dominant minority" in Saudi
Saudi
Arabia. Unlike Hejaz
Hejaz
, Najd
Najd
is very remote and had largely avoided falling under foreign control
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Nasal Stop
In phonetics , a NASAL, also called a NASAL OCCLUSIVE, NASAL STOP in contrast with a nasal fricative , or NASAL CONTINUANT, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum , allowing air to escape freely through the nose. Examples of nasals in English are and , in words such as nose and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of NASAL CONSONANTS in some languages. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Voiceless nasals * 3 Other kinds of nasal consonant * 4 Languages without nasals * 5 Lack of phonemic nasals * 6 Lack of phonetic nasals * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography DEFINITIONNearly all nasal consonants are nasal occlusives, in which air escapes through the nose but not through the mouth, as it is blocked (occluded) by the lips or tongue. The oral cavity still acts as a resonance chamber for the sound. Rarely, non-occlusive consonants may be nasalized
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Bilabial Nasal
The BILABIAL NASAL is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages . The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨m⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ⟨m⟩. The bilabial nasal occurs in English , and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum. It occurs nearly universally, and few languages (e.g. Mohawk ) are known to lack this sound. CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 Occurrence * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography FEATURESFeatures of the bilabial nasal: * Its manner of articulation is occlusive , which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Voiced Bilabial Stop
The VOICED BILABIAL STOP is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages . The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨b⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b. The voiced bilabial stop occurs in English , and it is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨b⟩ in boy. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani , have a two-way contrast between breathy voiced /bʱ/ and plain /b/. CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 Varieties * 3 Occurrence * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography FEATURESFeatures of the voiced bilabial stop: * Its manner of articulation is occlusive , which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Fricative
FRICATIVES are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of ; the back of the tongue against the soft palate , in the case of German (the final consonant of Bach
Bach
); or the side of the tongue against the molars , in the case of Welsh (appearing twice in the name Llanelli ). This turbulent airflow is called FRICATION. A particular subset of fricatives are the SIBILANTS . When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth. English , , , and are examples of sibilants. The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "SPIRANT" can be a synonym of "fricative", or (as in e.g. Uralic linguistics) refer to non-sibilant fricatives only
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