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Levantine Arabic
Levantine Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة‎, ʾal-lahǧatu š-šāmiyyah, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic
Arabic
of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.[a] With over 32 million native speakers worldwide, it is considered one of the five major varieties of Arabic.[6] In the frame of the general diglossia status of the Arab world, Levantine Arabic
Arabic
is used for daily spoken use, while most of the written and official documents and media use Modern Standard Arabic.Contents1 Classification 2 Geographical distribution 3 History 4 Phonology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksClassification[edit] Levantine Arabic
Arabic
is most closely related to North Mesopotamian Arabic, Anatolian Arabic, and Cypriot Arabic
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Voiceless Velar Stop
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨k⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is k. The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi
Hindi
and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar stop, e.g
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Al-Nabek
An-Nabek or Al-Nabek (Arabic: النبك‎) is a Syrian city administratively belonging to Rif Dimashq and the capital of the Qalamoun. Located 81 kilometers (50 mi) north of Damascus and south of Homs. It has an altitude of 1255 meters. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), An-Nabek had a population of 32,548 in the 2004 census.[1] The Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian (Deir Mar Musa al-Habashi) is located along the Anti-Lebanon Mountains near Nabek and dates back to at least the 6th century. In the mid-19th century, the population was recorded as consisting mostly of Sunni Muslims, Syriac Catholic and Melkite Catholic Christians.[2] In the mid-1940s, its 6,000 inhabitants were noted to be Sunni Muslims.[3]Contents1 History 2 Landmarks 3 References 4 Bibliography 5 External linksHistory[edit] An-Nabek has been mentioned by Arab geographers from the 12th to 13th centuries CE
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Nasal Stop
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. Examples of nasals in English are [n] and [m], in words such as nose and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages.Contents1 Definition 2 Voiceless nasals 3 Other kinds of nasal consonant 4 Languages without nasals 5 Lack of phonemic nasals 6 Lack of phonetic nasals 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 BibliographyDefinition[edit] Nearly all nasal consonants are nasal occlusives, in which air escapes through the nose but not through the mouth, as it is blocked (occluded) by the lips or tongue. The oral cavity still acts as a resonance chamber for the sound
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Language Shift
Language
Language
shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often, languages that are perceived to be higher status stabilise or spread at the expense of other languages that are perceived by their own speakers to be lower-status
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7th Century
The 7th century
7th century
is the period from 601
601
to 700
700
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in the Common Era. The Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
began with the unification of Arabia
Arabia
by Muhammad
Muhammad
starting in 622
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Emphatic Consonant
In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents. In specific Semitic languages, the members of this series may be realized as uvularized or pharyngealized, velarized, ejective, or plain voiced or voiceless consonants. It is also used, to a lesser extent, to describe cognate series in other Afro-Asiatic languages, where they are typically realized as either ejective or implosive consonants. In Semitic studies, they are commonly transcribed using the convention of placing a dot under the closest plain obstruent consonant in the Latin alphabet. With respect to particular Semitic and Afro-Asiatic languages, this term describes the particular phonetic feature which distinguishes these consonants from other consonants
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Glottal Consonant
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic, most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/
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Maronites
The Maronites
Maronites
are a Christian group[10] who adhere to the Syriac Maronite Church
Maronite Church
with the largest population around Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
in Lebanon. The Maronite Church
Maronite Church
is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope
Pope
and the Catholic Church,[11] with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, one of more than a dozen individual churches in full communion with the Holy See
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Al-Sukhnah, Syria
Al-Sukhnah (Arabic: السخنة‎, also spelled al-Sukhanah) is a town in eastern Syria
Syria
under the administration of the Homs Governorate, located east of Homs
Homs
in the Syrian Desert. Nearby localities include Mayadin
Mayadin
and al-Asharah to the east, al-Taybah and Raqqa
Raqqa
to the north, Salamiyah
Salamiyah
to the west, Arak and Tadmur
Tadmur
(Palmyra) to the southwest. According to Syria
Syria
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), al-Sukhnah had a population of 16,173 in the 2004 census
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Occlusive
In phonetics, an occlusive, sometimes known as a stop, is a consonant sound produced by blocking (occluding) airflow in the vocal tract, but not necessarily in the nasal tract. The duration of the block is the occlusion of the consonant
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Palmyra
Palmyra
Palmyra
(/ˌpɑːlˈmaɪrə/; Palmyrene: Tadmor; Arabic: تَدْمُر‎ Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs
Homs
Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, and the city was first documented in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra
Palmyra
changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD. The city grew wealthy from trade caravans; the Palmyrenes were renowned merchants who established colonies along the Silk Road
Silk Road
and operated throughout the Roman Empire. Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade, the Temple of Bel, and the distinctive tower tombs. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Amorites, Arameans, and Arabs
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Damascus
Damascus
Damascus
(/dəˈmæskəs/; Arabic: دمشق‎ Dimashq [diˈmaʃq], Syrian: [dˈməʃe(ː)ʔ]) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is likely also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo
Aleppo
due to the battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria
Syria
as ash-Sham (Arabic: الشام‎ ash-Shām) and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine
Jasmine
(Arabic: مدينة الياسمين‎ Madīnat al-Yāsmīn). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world,[4] Damascus
Damascus
is a major cultural centre of the Levant
Levant
and the Arab world
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Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad
(/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بغداد‎ [baɣˈdaːd] ( listen)) is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016[update], is approximately 8,765,000,[citation needed][note 1] making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world
Arab world
(after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia
Western Asia
(after Tehran, Iran). Located along the Tigris
Tigris
River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Najd
Najd
Najd
or Nejd
Nejd
(Arabic: نجد‎, Najd, Arabic pronunciation: [nad͡ʒd]) is a geographical central region of Saudi
Saudi
Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.[1] Najd
Najd
consists of modern administrative regions of Riyadh, Al-Qassim, and Ha'il
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Pharyngeal Consonant
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx. Some phoneticians distinguish upper pharyngeal consonants, or "high" pharyngeals, pronounced by retracting the root of the tongue in the mid to upper pharynx, from (ary)epiglottal consonants, or "low" pharyngeals, which are articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis in the lower larynx, as well as from epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants, with both movements being combined. Stops and trills can be reliably produced only at the epiglottis, and fricatives can be reliably produced only in the upper pharynx. When they are treated as distinct places of articulation, the term radical consonant may be used as a cover term, or the term guttural consonants may be used instead. In many languages, pharyngeal consonants trigger advancement of neighboring vowels. Pharyngeals thus differ from uvulars, which nearly always trigger retraction
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