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Leonid Levin Leonid Anatolievich Levin (/leɪ.oʊˈniːd ˈlɛvɪn/ layohNEED LEVin; Russian: Леони́д Анато́льевич Ле́вин; Ukrainian: Леоні́д Анато́лійович Ле́він; born November 2, 1948) is a SovietAmerican computer scientist. He is known for his work in randomness in computing, algorithmic complexity and intractability, averagecase complexity,[1] foundations of mathematics and computer science, algorithmic probability, theory of computation, and information theory. He obtained his master's degree at Moscow University Moscow University in 1970 where he studied under Andrey Kolmogorov and completed the Candidate Degree academic requirements in 1972.[2] He and Stephen Cook Stephen Cook independently discovered the existence of NPcomplete problems [...More...]  "Leonid Levin" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Independently Discovered The concept of multiple discovery (also known as simultaneous invention)[1][better source needed] is the hypothesis that most scientific discoveries and inventions are made independently and more or less simultaneously by multiple scientists and inventors.[2][page needed] The concept of multiple discovery opposes a traditional view—the "heroic theory" of invention and discovery.[not verified in body]Contents1 Multiples 2 Mechanism 3 Humanities 4 The arts 5 Civility 6 See also 7 References and notes 8 Further reading 9 External linksMultiples[edit] When Nobel laureates are announced annually—especially in physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, and economics—increasingly, in the given field, rather than just a single laureate, there are two, or the maximally permissible three, who often have independently made the same discovery.[according to whom?][citation needed] Historians and sociologists have remarked on the occurrence, in science, of "m [...More...]  "Independently Discovered" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

United States Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; 100 United States United States of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto: "In God God We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos "E pluribus unum" (Lat [...More...]  "United States" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Information Theory Information Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information. It was originally proposed by Claude E. Shannon in 1948 to find fundamental limits on signal processing and communication operations such as data compression, in a landmark paper entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPEGs), and channel coding (e.g. for digital subscriber line (DSL)). Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. A key measure in information theory is "entropy" [...More...]  "Information Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Candidate Of Sciences Kandidat nauk (Russian: Кандидат наук, literally "Candidate of Sciences") is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in some former Soviet countries. It is formally classified as UNESCO UNESCO ISCED level 8, 'doctoral or equivalent', and is thus officially translated into English and other languages as Doctor of Philosophy (i.e [...More...]  "Candidate Of Sciences" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Ukrainian: Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УССР ; Russian: Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР , УССР ; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.[7] The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary oneparty socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations,[8] although it was legally represented by the AllUnion state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union [...More...]  "Ukrainian SSR" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

NPcompleteness In computational complexity theory, an N Pcomplete decision problem is one belonging to both the NP and the NPhard NPhard complexity classes. In this context, NP stands for "nondeterministic polynomial time". The set of N Pcomplete problems is often denoted by NPC or NPC. Although any given solution to an N Pcomplete problem can be verified quickly (in polynomial time), there is no known efficient way to locate a solution in the first place; the most notable characteristic of N Pcomplete problems is that no fast solution to them is known. That is, the time required to solve the problem using any currently known algorithm increases very quickly as the size of the problem grows [...More...]  "NPcompleteness" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Millennium Prize Problems The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Mathematics Institute in 2000. The problems are the Birch and SwinnertonDyer conjecture, Hodge conjecture, Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness, P versus NP problem, Poincaré conjecture, Riemann hypothesis, and Yang–Mills existence and mass gap [...More...]  "Millennium Prize Problems" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Clay Mathematics Institute The Clay Mathematics Mathematics Institute (CMI) is a private, nonprofit foundation, based in Peterborough, New Hampshire, United States. CMI's scientific activities are managed from the President's office in Oxford, United Kingdom. The institute is "dedicated to increasing and disseminating mathematical knowledge." It gives out various awards and sponsorships to promising mathematicians. The institute was founded in 1998 through the sponsorship of Boston businessman Landon T [...More...]  "Clay Mathematics Institute" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Boris Trakhtenbrot Boris (Boaz) Avraamovich Trakhtenbrot (Russian: Борис Авраамович Трахтенброт; 19 February 1921 – 19 September 2016), or Boaz (Boris) Trakhtenbrot (Hebrew: בועז טרכטנברוט) was an Israeli and Russian mathematician in mathematical logic, algorithms, theory of computation, and cybernetics [...More...]  "Boris Trakhtenbrot" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Computer Science Computer science Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to, information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.[1] Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines [...More...]  "Computer Science" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Digital Object Identifier In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents [...More...]  "Digital Object Identifier" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Wayback Machine The Wayback Machine Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web World Wide Web and other information on the Internet Internet created by the Internet Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive Archive Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification [...More...]  "Wayback Machine" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Springer Science+Business Media Springer Science+Business Media Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, ebooks and peerreviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.[1] Springer also hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, Springer Protocols, and SpringerImages [...More...]  "Springer Science+Business Media" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

International Standard Book Number "ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book Book NumberA 13digit ISBN, 9783161484100, as represented by an EAN13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 9783161484100Website www.isbninternational.orgThe International Standard Book Book Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007 [...More...]  "International Standard Book Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Special Special Special or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special Special (album), a 1992 [...More...]  "Special" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 