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Leonid Levin
Leonid Anatolievich Levin (/leɪ.oʊˈniːd ˈlɛvɪn/ lay-oh-NEED LEV-in; Russian: Леони́д Анато́льевич Ле́вин; Ukrainian: Леоні́д Анато́лійович Ле́він; born November 2, 1948) is a Soviet-American computer scientist. He is known for his work in randomness in computing, algorithmic complexity and intractability, average-case complexity,[1] foundations of mathematics and computer science, algorithmic probability, theory of computation, and information theory. He obtained his master's degree at Moscow University
Moscow University
in 1970 where he studied under Andrey Kolmogorov and completed the Candidate Degree academic requirements in 1972.[2] He and Stephen Cook
Stephen Cook
independently discovered the existence of NP-complete problems
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Independently Discovered
The concept of multiple discovery (also known as simultaneous invention)[1][better source needed] is the hypothesis that most scientific discoveries and inventions are made independently and more or less simultaneously by multiple scientists and inventors.[2][page needed] The concept of multiple discovery opposes a traditional view—the "heroic theory" of invention and discovery.[not verified in body]Contents1 Multiples 2 Mechanism 3 Humanities 4 The arts 5 Civility 6 See also 7 References and notes 8 Further reading 9 External linksMultiples[edit] When Nobel laureates are announced annually—especially in physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, and economics—increasingly, in the given field, rather than just a single laureate, there are two, or the maximally permissible three, who often have independently made the same discovery.[according to whom?][citation needed] Historians and sociologists have remarked on the occurrence, in science, of "m
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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Information Theory
Information
Information
theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information. It was originally proposed by Claude E. Shannon in 1948 to find fundamental limits on signal processing and communication operations such as data compression, in a landmark paper entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPEGs), and channel coding (e.g. for digital subscriber line (DSL)). Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. A key measure in information theory is "entropy"
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Candidate Of Sciences
Kandidat nauk (Russian: Кандидат наук, literally "Candidate of Sciences") is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in some former Soviet countries. It is formally classified as UNESCO
UNESCO
ISCED level 8, 'doctoral or equivalent', and is thus officially translated into English and other languages as Doctor of Philosophy (i.e
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Ukrainian SSR
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Ukrainian: Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УССР ; Russian: Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР , УССР ; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.[7] The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations,[8] although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union
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NP-completeness
In computational complexity theory, an N P-complete decision problem is one belonging to both the NP and the NP-hard
NP-hard
complexity classes. In this context, NP stands for "nondeterministic polynomial time". The set of N P-complete problems is often denoted by NP-C or NPC. Although any given solution to an N P-complete problem can be verified quickly (in polynomial time), there is no known efficient way to locate a solution in the first place; the most notable characteristic of N P-complete problems is that no fast solution to them is known. That is, the time required to solve the problem using any currently known algorithm increases very quickly as the size of the problem grows
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Millennium Prize Problems
The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics
Mathematics
Institute in 2000. The problems are the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture, Hodge conjecture, Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness, P versus NP problem, Poincaré conjecture, Riemann hypothesis, and Yang–Mills existence and mass gap
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Clay Mathematics Institute
The Clay Mathematics
Mathematics
Institute (CMI) is a private, non-profit foundation, based in Peterborough, New Hampshire, United States. CMI's scientific activities are managed from the President's office in Oxford, United Kingdom. The institute is "dedicated to increasing and disseminating mathematical knowledge." It gives out various awards and sponsorships to promising mathematicians. The institute was founded in 1998 through the sponsorship of Boston businessman Landon T
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Boris Trakhtenbrot
Boris (Boaz) Avraamovich Trakhtenbrot (Russian: Борис Авраамович Трахтенброт; 19 February 1921 – 19 September 2016), or Boaz (Boris) Trakhtenbrot (Hebrew: בועז טרכטנברוט‎) was an Israeli and Russian mathematician in mathematical logic, algorithms, theory of computation, and cybernetics
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Computer Science
Computer science
Computer science
is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to, information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.[1] Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Springer Science+Business Media
Springer Science+Business Media
Springer Science+Business Media
or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.[1] Springer also hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, Springer Protocols, and SpringerImages
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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