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Legislature
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber
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International Parliament
An INTERNATIONAL PARLIAMENT or SUPRANATIONAL LEGISLATURE is a branch of an intergovernmental organization tasked with legislative powers and thus establishing a hybrid system of not only intergovernmentalism , but also supranationalism . It could be based on a predecessor inter-parliamentary institution or a newly established organization-level legislature. Such branches of intergovernmental organizations are typically established in order to provide for representation of citizens , rather than governments who are represented in other bodies within the organization. The assembly can be composed of members of the national legislatures (whose members are directly elected in most cases ) or of its own directly elected members, further strengthening the supranationalism of the organization
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Motion Of No Confidence
A MOTION OF NO CONFIDENCE (alternatively VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE, NO-CONFIDENCE MOTION, or (UNSUCCESSFUL) CONFIDENCE MOTION) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental. As a parliamentary motion , it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in (one or more members of) the appointed government . A censure motion is different from a no-confidence motion. Depending on the constitution of the body concerned, "No Confidence" may lead to compulsory resignation of the council of ministers or other position-holder(s), whereas "Censure" is meant to show disapproval and does not result in the resignation of ministers
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Dictatorship
DICTATORSHIP is a form of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by one person (a dictator ) or by a polity , and power is exercized through various mechanisms in order to ensure that the entity's power remains strong. A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism , in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda in order to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators in order to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the west . In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and constitutional democracy emerged as the world's two major forms of government
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics
Politics
is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior
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City Council
A CITY COUNCIL, TOWN COUNCIL, TOWN BOARD, or BOARD OF ALDERMEN is the legislative body that governs a city , town , municipality , or local government area . CONTENTS * 1 Australia * 2 Ireland * 3 Malaysia
Malaysia
* 4 New Zealand
New Zealand
* 5 Taiwan * 6 United Kingdom * 6.1 England * 6.2 Wales * 6.3 Scotland * 6.4 Northern Ireland * 7 Canada and United States * 8 Bicameralism * 9 See also * 10 References AUSTRALIA Main article: Local government in Australia
Local government in Australia
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Because of the differences in legislation between the states , the exact definition of a City
City
Council varies
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Anarchy
ANARCHY is the condition of a society , entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy . The word originally meant leaderlessness , but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy : anarchism , which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations . In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government . It can also designate a nation (or anywhere on earth that is inhabited) that has no system of government or central rule
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Theocracy
THEOCRACY is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
has this definition: 1. a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God
God
or a god. 1.1. the commonwealth of Israel
Israel
from the time of Moses
Moses
until the election of Saul as King. An ECCLESIOCRACY is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation: for example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages , where the bishop was also the temporal ruler. Such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two 'arms'—administrators and clergy—but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Political Philosophy
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, or POLITICAL THEORY, is the study of topics such as politics , liberty , justice , property , rights , law , and the enforcement of a legal code by authority : what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate , what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term "political ideology "
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Political History
POLITICAL HISTORY is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders. It is interrelated to other fields of history, especially diplomatic history , as well as constitutional history and public history . Political history studies the organization and operation of power in large societies. By focusing on the elites in power, on their impact on society, on popular response, and on the relationships with the elites in other social history , which focuses predominantly on the actions and lifestyles of ordinary people, or people\'s history , which is historical work from the perspective of the common people. In two decades from 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history rose from 31% to 41%, and the proportion of political historians fell from 40% to 30%
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Politics Of Country Subdivisions
This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. Countries where significant powers delegated to federal units or to devolved governments and where the political system is multi-party democracy are more likely to have articles on the politics of their subdivisions. Entities listed in the article List of countries are shows in the article Politics
Politics
of present-day nations and states
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Political Economy
POLITICAL ECONOMY is the study of production and trade and their relations with law , custom and government as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth . Political economy
Political economy
as a discipline originated in moral philosophy in the 18th century and sought to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie" or "household management". The earliest works of political economy are most often attributed to British scholars like Adam Smith
Adam Smith
, Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo
David Ricardo
, although the case is sometimes made that the still earlier works of the French physiocrats constitute the true beginnings of the discipline
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Political System
A POLITICAL SYSTEM is a system of politics and government . It is usually compared to the legal system , economic system , cultural system , and other social systems . However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the questions of who should have authority and what the government's influence on its people and economy should be. CONTENTS * 1 Anthropological forms * 2 Sociology * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links ANTHROPOLOGICAL FORMSAnthropologists generally recognize four kinds of political systems, two of which are uncentralized and two of which are centralized
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