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Legend
A LEGEND is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and demonstrating human values, and which possesses certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude . Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility," but may include miracles . Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep them fresh and vital, and realistic . Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted. The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
defined legend as folktale historically grounded. A modern folklorist 's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R
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Helmut De Boor
HELMUT DE BOOR (born 24 March 1891 in Bonn
Bonn
, died 4 August 1976 in Berlin
Berlin
) was a German medievalist. CONTENTS* 1 Life and career * 1.1 Under the Nazis * 2 Personal life * 3 Selected publications * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND CAREER Helmut de Boor was the third child of the Byzantine studies scholar Carl Gotthard de Boor . He was educated in Breslau
Breslau
and attended the Universities of Freiburg , Marburg and Leipzig . He earned his doctorate from Leipzig in 1914 and following service in World War I, his Habilitation from the University of Breslau
Breslau
in 1919, in German studies , Old Norse
Old Norse
and Philology
Philology

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Motif (folkloristics)
MOTIF is a word used by folklorists who analyze, interpret, and describe the traditional elements found in the lore of particular folk groups and compare the folklore of various regions and cultures of the world based on these motif patterns. Ultimately, folklorists identify motifs in folklore to interpret where, how, and why these motifs are used, so they can understand the values, customs, and ways of life of unique cultures. In cultural anthropology and folkloristics , the meaning of motif encompasses the meanings of motif used in the areas of music , literary criticism , visual arts , and textile arts because folklorists study motifs (i.e., recurring elements) in each of these areas, motifs that create recognizable patterns in folklore and folk-art traditions
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Ernst Bernheim
ERNST BERNHEIM (19 February 1850 – 9 July 1942) was a German historian, best known for an influential Lehrbuch der historischen Methode (1889) on historical method . CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Career * 3 Nazi era * 4 Memory * 5 References * 6 External links FAMILYHe was born in Hamburg
Hamburg
as a son of merchant Louis Bernheim (later changed to Ludwig Berheim, born 7 December 1815 in Fürstenberg ) and Emma Simon (born 15 April 1834 in Kolberg ), who since 1834 lived in Hamburg
Hamburg
. On 16 April 1884 he married Amalie ("Emma") Henriette Jessen (born 18 September 1861 in Hamburg, died 9 July 1945 in Greifswald). They had a daughter and three sons. CAREERErnst attended the Johanneum since Easter, 1862, and graduated with Abitur
Abitur
on 22 September 1868
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Will Erich Peuckert
WILL-ERICH PEUCKERT (11 May 1895 – 25 October 1969) was a German folklorist. LIFEPeuckert was born in Töppendorf in Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
on May 1, 1895. He studied History and Volkskunde at the University of Breslau , where he delivered his dissertation, and went on teach at the Pedagogical Academy in Breslau
Breslau
. There he began to make a name for himself through several publications on German and Silesian folklore . Before he reached professorship, a defamation campaign pressed by a colleague convinced the Nazi authorities to revoke his teaching permissions in 1935. Peuckert doggedly refused to compromise his work with Nazi pressure, an attitude rewarded after the war when he was appointed as a professor at the University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
and became chair of Volkskunde, the only such position in Germany
Germany
for many years
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Friedrich Ranke
FRIEDRICH RANKE (21 September 1882 - 11 October 1950) was a German medievalist philologist and folklorist . His Old Norse
Old Norse
textbook Altnordisches Elementarbuch remains a standard, and all literature concerning Gottfried von Strassburgs Tristan und Isold uses Ranke's line numbering for references to the text. Born in Lübeck
Lübeck
as one of three sons of the theologian Leopold Friedrich Ranke and his wife Julie (von Bever) (1850–1924) he was a brother of the Egyptologists Hermann und Otto Ranke (1880–1917). Graduating from the Katharineum at Lübeck, he studied German, English and Nordic philology at the universities of Göttingen (1902/03), Munich (1903/05) and Berlin (1905/07). In Munich he studied with the pioneering folklorist Friedrich von der Leyen
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John Foxe
JOHN FOXE (1516/17 – 18 April 1587) was an English historian and martyrologist , the author of Actes and Monuments
Actes and Monuments
(popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs), an account of Christian
Christian
martyrs throughout Western history but emphasizing the sufferings of English Protestants and proto-Protestants from the fourteenth century through the reign of Mary I . Widely owned and read by English Puritans , the book helped mould British popular opinion about the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
for several centuries
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Chronicle
A CHRONICLE (Latin : chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line . Typically, equal weight is given for historically important events and local events, the purpose being the recording of events that occurred, seen from the perspective of the chronicler. This is in contrast to a narrative or history, which sets selected events in a meaningful interpretive context and excludes those the author does not see as important. Where a chronicler obtained the information varies; some chronicles are written from first-hand knowledge, some are from witnesses or participants in events, still others are accounts passed mouth to mouth prior to being written down. Some used written material: Charters, letters, or the works of earlier chroniclers. Still others are tales of such unknown origins so as to hold mythical status
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Rumour
A RUMOR ( American English
American English
) or RUMOUR ( British English
British English
; see spelling differences ) is "a tall tale of explanations of events circulating from person to person and pertaining to an object, event, or issue in public concern." In the social sciences , a rumor involves some kind of a statement whose veracity is not quickly or ever confirmed. In addition, some scholars have identified rumor as a subset of propaganda . Sociology
Sociology
, psychology , and communication studies have widely varying definitions of rumor. Rumors are also often discussed with regard to "misinformation" and "disinformation" (the former often seen as simply false and the latter seen as deliberately false, though usually from a government source given to the media or a foreign government). Rumors thus have often been viewed as particular forms of other communication concepts
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Gordon Allport
GORDON WILLARD ALLPORT (November 11, 1897 – October 9, 1967) was an American psychologist . Allport was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality , and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology . He contributed to the formation of values scales and rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often went too deep, and a behavioral approach, which he thought often did not go deep enough. He emphasized the uniqueness of each individual, and the importance of the present context, as opposed to past history, for understanding the personality. Allport had a profound and lasting influence on the field of psychology, even though his work is cited much less often than that of other well-known figures. Part of his influence stemmed from his knack for attacking and broadly conceptualizing important and interesting topics (e.g
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Donkey
The DONKEY or ASS (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae . The wild ancestor of the donkey is the African wild ass
African wild ass
, E. africanus. The donkey has been used as a working animal for at least 5000 years. There are more than 40 million donkeys in the world, mostly in underdeveloped countries, where they are used principally as draught or pack animals. Working donkeys are often associated with those living at or below subsistence levels. Small numbers of donkeys are kept for breeding or as pets in developed countries. A male donkey or ass is called a jack, a female a jenny or jennet; a young donkey is a foal . Jack donkeys are often used to mate with female horses to produce mules ; the biological "reciprocal" of a mule, from a stallion and jenny as its parents instead, is called a hinny
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Liturgical Calendar
The LITURGICAL YEAR, also known as the CHURCH YEAR or CHRISTIAN YEAR, as well as the KALENDAR, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days , including celebrations of saints , are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years. Distinct liturgical colours may appear in connection with different seasons of the liturgical year. The dates of the festivals vary somewhat between the different churches, though the sequence and logic is largely the same
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Prodigal Son
The PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL SON (also known as the TWO BROTHERS, LOST SON, LOVING FATHER, or LOVESICK FATHER) is one of the parables of Jesus
Jesus
and appears in Luke 15:11–32. Jesus
Jesus
Christ shares it with his disciples, the Pharisees
Pharisees
and others. In the story, a father has two sons. The younger son asks for his inheritance and after wasting his fortune (the word "prodigal" means "wastefully extravagant"), becomes destitute. He returns home with the intention of begging his father to be made one of his hired servants, expecting his relationship with his father is likely severed. The father welcomes him back and celebrates his return. The older son refuses to participate. The father reminds the older son that one day he will inherit everything. But, they should still celebrate the return of the younger son because he was lost and is now found
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Treves
TRIER (German pronunciation: ( listen ); Luxembourgish : Tréier ), formerly known in English as TREVES (French : Trèves, IPA: ) and TRIERS (see also names in other languages ), is a city in Germany
Germany
on the banks of the Moselle . Trier
Trier
lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
, near the border with Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and within the important Moselle wine region . Founded by the Celts
Celts
in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was later conquered by the Romans
Romans
in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum ( Latin
Latin
for "The City of Augustus
Augustus
among the Treveri
Treveri
"). Trier
Trier
may be the oldest city in Germany
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Supernatural
The SUPERNATURAL ( Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural ", first used: 1520–1530 AD) includes all that cannot be explained by the laws of nature, including things characteristic of or relating to ghosts , gods, or other types of spirits and other non-material beings , or to things beyond nature. CONTENTS * 1 Views * 2 Philosophy * 3 Religion
Religion
* 3.1 Christian theology * 3.2 Process theology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading VIEWS This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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