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Legal Psychology
Legal psychology
Legal psychology
involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law. Legal psychologists typically take basic social and cognitive principles and apply them to issues in the legal system such as eyewitness memory, jury decision-making, investigations, and interviewing. The term "legal psychology" has only recently come into usage, primarily as a way to differentiate the experimental focus of legal psychology from the clinically-oriented forensic psychology. Together, legal psychology and forensic psychology form the field more generally recognized as "psychology and law"
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Military Psychology
Military
Military
psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and empirical data towards understanding, predicting, and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or the civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations. Military
Military
psychology transforms from sub-branch groups of different psychology disciplines into a tool used by the military, as will all tools of the military, to enable the troops to better survive the stresses of war while using psychological principles to unbalance the enemy forces for easier wins.[1] All stresses and psychological illnesses that military psychology looks at are not specific only to the military. However, soldiers tend to face a specific combination of these otherwise generic stresses
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List Of Psychotherapies
This is an alphabetical list of psychotherapies. See the main article psychotherapy for a description of what psychotherapy is and how it developed (see also counseling, and the list of counseling topics). This list contains some approaches that may not call themselves a psychotherapy but have a similar aim, of improving mental health and well being through talk and other means of communication. In the 20th century, a great number of psychotherapies were created. All of these face continuous change in popularity, methods and effectiveness. Sometimes they are self-administered, either individually, in pairs, small groups or larger groups. However, a professional practitioner will usually use a combination of therapies and approaches, often in a team treatment process that involves reading/talking/reporting to other professional practitioners. The older established therapies usually have a code of ethics, professional associations, training programs, and so on
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Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied behavior analysis
Applied behavior analysis
(ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.[1][2] It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or experimental research).[1] The name "applied behavior analysis" has replaced behavior modification because the latter approach suggested attempting to change behavior without clarifying the relevant behavior-environment interactions. In contrast, ABA tries to change behavior by first assessing the functional relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment.[3] Further, the approach often seeks to develop socially acceptable alternatives to aberrant behaviors.[3][4][5] ABA has been brought to bear on a wide range of areas and behavioral problems
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Behavioural Genetics
Behavioural genetics
Behavioural genetics
(Commonwealth English) or behavioral genetics (American English), also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour. While the name "behavioural genetics" connotes a focus on genetic influences, the field broadly investigates genetic and environmental influences, using research designs that allow removal of the confounding of genes and environment. Behavioural genetics
Behavioural genetics
was founded as a scientific discipline by Francis Galton
Francis Galton
in the late 19th century, only to be discredited through association with eugenics movements before and during World War II
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Quantitative Psychology
Quantitative psychology
Quantitative psychology
is a field of scientific study that focuses on the mathematical modeling, research design and methodology, and statistical analysis of human or animal psychological processes.[1] Quantitative psychologists develop and analyze a wide variety of research methods, including those of psychometrics, a field concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.[2] Psychologists have long contributed to statistical and mathematical analysis, and quantitative psychology is now a specialty recognized by the American Psychological Association. Doctoral degrees are awarded in this field in a number of universities in Europe and North America, and quantitative psychologists have been in high demand in industry, government, and academia
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Environmental Psychology
Environmental psychology
Environmental psychology
is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aimed at solving complex environmental problems in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society.[1] When solving problems involving human-environment interactions, whether global or local, one must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will respond well
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Human Factors And Ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
(commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest. [1] The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, and user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities
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Experimental Psychology
Experimental psychology
Experimental psychology
refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it
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Consumer Behaviour
Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
emerged in the 1940s and 50s as a distinct sub-discipline in the marketing area. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is an inter-disciplinary social science that blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, ethnography, marketing and economics, especially behavioural economics. It examines how emotions, attitudes and preferences affect buying behaviour
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Industrial And Organizational Psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology
(I/O psychology), which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, and work and organizational psychology, is an applied discipline within psychology. I/O psychology is the science of human behaviour relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual's work-life more generally.[1] I/O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitioner model. They contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, motivation, job satisfaction, and occupational safety and health as well as the overall health and well-being of its employees
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Critical Psychology
Critical psychology
Critical psychology
is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory. Critical psychology
Critical psychology
challenges mainstream psychology and attempts to apply psychological understandings in more progressive ways, often looking towards social change as a means of preventing and treating psychopathology. One of critical psychology's main criticisms of conventional psychology is that it fails to consider or deliberately ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can affect the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people
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Educational Psychology
Educational psychology
Educational psychology
is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.[1] Educational psychology
Educational psychology
can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines
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Health Psychology
Health psychology
Health psychology
is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.[1] It is concerned with understanding how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness. Psychological
Psychological
factors can affect health directly. For example, chronically occurring environmental stressors affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. Behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For example, certain behaviors can, over time, harm (smoking or consuming excessive amounts of alcohol) or enhance health (engaging in exercise).[2] Health psychologists take a biopsychosocial approach
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Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic
Humanistic
psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.[1] With its roots running from Socrates
Socrates
through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own capabilities and creativity. It helps the client gain the belief that all people are inherently good.[2] It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and positive human potential
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List Of Important Publications In Psychology
This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important:Topic creator – A publication that created a new topic Breakthrough – A publication that changed scientific knowledge significantly Influence – A publication which has significantly influenced the world or has had a massive impact on the teaching of psychology.Contents1 Historical foundations 2 Abnormal psychology 3 Behaviorism 4 Biological psychology 5 Clinical psychology 6 Cognitive psychology 7 'Control theory' psychology 8 Developmental psychology 9 Educational psychology 10 Evolutionary psychology10.1 Evolutionary developmental psychology 10.2 Evolutionary educational psychology11 Forensic psychology 12 Gestalt psychology 13 Health psychology 14 Human behavior genetics / Genetic psychology 15 Humanistic psychology 16 Industrial and organizational psychology 17 Neuropharmacology 18 Neuropsycholo
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