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Lebanese Arabic
Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic. Due to multilingualism among Lebanese people
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Stop Consonant
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) or body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract.Contents1 Terminology 2 Common stops 3 Articulation 4 Classification4.1 Voice 4.2 Aspiration 4.3 Length 4.4 Nasalization 4.5 Airstream mechanism 4.6 Tenseness5 Transcription5.1 English 5.2 Variations6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTerminology[edit] The terms stop, occlusive, and plosive are often used interchangeably. Linguists who distinguish them may not agree on the distinction being made. The terms refer to different features of the consonant. "Stop" refers to the airflow that is stopped
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Close-mid Back Rounded Vowel
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩. For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close near-back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.Contents1 Close-mid back protruded vowel1.1 Features 1.2 Occurrence2 Close-mid back compressed vowel2.1 Features 2.2 Occurrence3 References 4 BibliographyClose-mid back protruded vowel[edit] The close-mid back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close-mid back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨o⟩, and that is the convention used in this article
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Open Front Unrounded Vowel
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨a⟩, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner
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Near-open Central Unrounded Vowel
The near-open central unrounded vowel is the most common type of the near-open central vowel, and is thus typically transcribed simply as ⟨ɐ⟩, which is the convention used in this article. If its unroundedness needs to be specified, it can be done by adding the less rounded diacritic to the near-open central vowel symbol: ⟨ɐ̜⟩, by combining the lowered diacritic with the open-mid central unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨ɜ̞⟩, by combining the centralized diacritic with the near-open front unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨æ̈⟩, or by combining the mid-centralized diacritic with either the open front unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨a̽⟩, or with the open back unrounded vowel: ⟨ɑ̽⟩
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ة
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw , Hebrew Tav ת‬, Aramaic Taw , Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic
Arabic
Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order)
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Close-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩. For the close-mid (near-)front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close near-front unrounded vowel
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Debuccalization
Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually [h], [ɦ], or [ʔ]).[1] The pronunciation of a consonant as [h] is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop. The word comes from Latin
Latin
bucca, meaning "cheek". Debuccalization is usually seen as a sub-type of lenition, often defined as a consonant mutation involving the weakening of a consonant by progressive shifts in pronunciation. Debuccalization processes occur in many different types of environments such as the following:[2]word-initially, as in Kannada word-finally, as in Burmese intervocalically, as in a number of English varieties (e.g
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Voiceless Uvular Stop
The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is pronounced like a voiceless velar stop [k], except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨q⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is q. There is also the voiceless pre-uvular stop[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless uvular stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless velar stop. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟⟩ or ⟨q˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨q⟩) or ⟨k̠⟩ (retracted ⟨k⟩)
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Druze
WesternRevelation Divine illumination Divine lightIslamicTa'wil Irfan Nūr Sufism IsmāʿīlīsmEasternJnana Bodhi PrajnaBuddhism HinduismGnostic sectsList of Gnostic sectsSyrian-EgypticSethianismSamaritan Baptist sectsDositheos Simon Magus
Simon Magus
(Simonians) Menander Basilides
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Syria
Coordinates: 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-SūrīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic) Humat ad-Diyar Guardians of the HomelandCapital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300Official languages ArabicEthnic groupsSyrian Arabs Arameans Kurds Turkomans Assyrians Circassians Armenia
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish
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Labial Consonant
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, and labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English. A third labial articulation is dentolabials, articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals, though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants.[clarification needed] The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops, [m], [p], and [b], are bilabial and the fricatives, [f], and [v], are labiodental
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Glottal Stop
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩. Using IPA, this sound is known as a glottal plosive. As a result of the obstruction of the airflow in the glottis, the glottal vibration either stops or becomes irregular with a low rate and sudden drop in intensity.[1]Contents1 Features 2 Writing 3 Occurrence 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the glottal stop:[citation needed]Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Alveolar Consonant
Alveolar consonants (/ælˈviːələr, ˌælviˈoʊlər/) are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation; this is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants
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Palatal Consonant
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Distinction from palatalized consonants and consonant clusters 3 Examples 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant [j], which ranks as among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages.[citation needed] The nasal [ɲ] is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages,[1] in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the stop [c], but the affricate [t͡ʃ]
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