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Learning
LEARNING is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge , behaviors , skills , values , or preferences which may lead to a potential change in synthesizing information, depth of the knowledge, attitude or behavior relative to the type and range of experience. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, plants and some machines . Progress over time tends to follow a learning curve . Learning
Learning
does not happen all at once, but it builds upon and is shaped by previous knowledge. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge. Learning
Learning
produces changes in the organism and the changes produced are relatively permanent. Human learning may occur as part of education , personal development , schooling, or training . It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation . The study of how learning occurs is part of educational psychology , neuropsychology , learning theory , and pedagogy . Learning
Learning
may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning , seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play , seen only in relatively intelligent animals. Learning
Learning
may occur consciously or without conscious awareness
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LEARN (other)
LEARNING is the act of acquiring knowledge. LEARN may also refer to: * Ed Learn (born 1937), a Canadian football defensive back * _Learn: The Songs of Phil Ochs _, a 2006 folk album * Learn.com , a software companySEE ALSO * LEARN (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title LEARN. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Learn_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Learned (other)
To be LEARNED is to have much learning . LEARNED may also refer to: * Learned (surname) , an American surname * Learned Hand (1872–1961), an American judge and judicial philosopher * Learned, Mississippi , a town in the United States * Learned Pond , a body of water in Framingham, Massachusetts, United StatesSEE ALSO * List of people known as the Learned This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title LEARNED. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Learned_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Neuropsychology
NEUROPSYCHOLOGY studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours . It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders . Whereas classical neurology focuses on the physiology of the nervous system and classical psychology is largely divorced from it, neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind . It thus shares concepts and concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general. The term _neuropsychology_ has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied to efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells (or groups of cells) in higher primates (including some studies of human patients). It is scientific in its approach, making use of neuroscience , and shares an information processing view of the mind with cognitive psychology and cognitive science . In practice, neuropsychologists tend to work in research settings (universities, laboratories or research institutions), clinical settings (involved in assessing or treating patients with neuropsychological problems), forensic settings or industry (often as clinical-trial consultants where CNS function is a concern)
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List Of Regions In The Human Brain
The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies. Functional , connective , and developmental regions are listed in parentheses where appropriate
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Clinical Neuropsychology
CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships. Clinical neuropsychologists use this knowledge in the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and or rehabilitation of patients across the lifespan with neurological, medical, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, as well as other cognitive and learning disorders. The branch of neuropsychology associated with children and young people is pediatric neuropsychology . Assessment is primarily by way of neuropsychological tests , but also includes patient history, qualitative observation and may draw on findings from neuroimaging and other diagnostic medical procedures. Clinical neuropsychology requires an in-depth knowledge of: neuroanatomy , neurobiology , psychopharmacology and neuropathology . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Assessment * 1.2 History taking * 1.3 Selection of neuropsychological tests * 1.4 Report writing * 2 Educational requirements of different countries * 2.1 Australia * 2.2 Canada * 2.3 United Kingdom * 2.4 United States * 3 Journals * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYDuring the late 1800s, brain–behaviour relationships were interpreted by European physicians who observed and identified behavioural syndromes that were related with focal brain dysfunction
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Cognitive Neuropsychology
COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how mental processes are responsible for our cognitive abilities to store and produce new memories, produce language, recognize people and objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve. Cognitive neuropsychology places a particular emphasis on studying the cognitive effects of brain injury or neurological illness with a view to inferring models of normal cognitive functioning. Evidence is based on case studies of individual brain damaged patients who show deficits in brain areas and from patients who exhibit double dissociations . Double dissociations involve two patients and two tasks. One patient is impaired at one task but normal on the other, while the other patient is normal on the first task and impaired on the other. For example, patient A would be poor at reading printed words while still being normal at understanding spoken words, while the patient B would be normal at understanding written words and be poor at understanding spoken words. Scientists can interpret this information to explain how there is a single cognitive module for word comprehension. From studies like these, researchers infer that different areas of the brain are highly specialised
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Cognitive Neuroscience
COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE is the scientific field that is concerned with the study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition , with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes . It addresses the questions of how cognitive activities are affected or controlled by neural circuits in the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both neuroscience and psychology , overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology , cognitive psychology , and neuropsychology . Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology , and computational modeling . Parts of the brain play an important role in this field. Neurons play the most vital role, since the main point is to establish an understanding of cognition from a neural perspective, along with the different lobes of the Cerebral cortex . Due to its multidisciplinary nature, cognitive neuroscientists may have various backgrounds. Other than the associated disciplines just mentioned, cognitive neuroscientists may have backgrounds in neurobiology , neurophysiology , neurochemistry , bioengineering , neurology , physics , computer science , linguistics , philosophy , and mathematics
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Dementia
DEMENTIA is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language , and a decrease in motivation . A person's consciousness is usually not affected. A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging. These diseases also have a significant effect on a person's caregivers . The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer\'s disease , which makes up 50% to 70% of cases. Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), Lewy body dementia (15%), and frontotemporal dementia . Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus , Parkinson\'s disease , syphilis , and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others. More than one type of dementia may exist in the same person. A small proportion of cases run in families. In the DSM-5 , dementia was reclassified as a neurocognitive disorder , with various degrees of severity. Diagnosis is usually based on history of the illness and cognitive testing with medical imaging and blood work used to rule out other possible causes. The mini mental state examination is one commonly used cognitive test
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Human Brain
The HUMAN BRAIN is the central organ of the human nervous system , and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system . The brain consists of the cerebrum , the brainstem and the cerebellum . It controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs , and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body . The brain is contained in, and protected by, the skull bones of the head . The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. It is divided into two cerebral hemispheres . The cerebral cortex is an outer layer of grey matter , covering the core of white matter . The cortex is split into the neocortex and the much smaller allocortex . The neocortex is made up of six neuronal layers, while the allocortex has three or four. Each hemisphere is conventionally divided into four lobes – the frontal , temporal , parietal , and occipital lobes . The frontal lobe is associated with executive functions including self-control , planning , reasoning , and abstract thought , while the occipital lobe is dedicated to vision. Within each lobe, cortical areas are associated with specific functions, such as the sensory , a motor and association regions. Although the left and right hemispheres are broadly similar in shape and function, some functions are associated with one side , such as language in the left and visual-spatial ability in the right
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Neuroanatomy
NEUROANATOMY is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems . In contrast to animals with radial symmetry , whose nervous system consists of a distributed network of cells, animals with bilateral symmetry have segregated, defined nervous systems. Their neuroanatomy is therefore better understood. In vertebrates , the nervous system is segregated into the internal structure of the brain and spinal cord (together called the central nervous system , or CNS) and the routes of the nerves that connect to the rest of the body (known as the peripheral nervous system , or PNS). The delineation of distinct structures and regions of the nervous system has been critical in investigating how it works. For example, much of what neuroscientists have learned comes from observing how damage or "lesions" to specific brain areas affects behavior or other neural functions. For information about the composition of animal nervous systems, see nervous system . For information about the typical structure of the human nervous system, see human brain or peripheral nervous system . This article discusses information pertinent to the _study_ of neuroanatomy
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Neurophysiology
NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (from Greek νεῦρον, _neuron_, "nerve"; φύσις, _physis_, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, _-logia_, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system . The primary tools of basic neurophysiological research include electrophysiological recordings, such as patch clamp , voltage clamp , extracellular single-unit recording and recording of local field potentials , as well as some of the methods of calcium imaging , optogenetics , and molecular biology . Neurophysiology is related to electrophysiology , neurobiology , psychology (compare to neuropsychology ), neurology , clinical neurophysiology , neuroanatomy , cognitive science , biophysics , mathematical biology , and other sciences concerning the brain. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORY _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (May 2012)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ Neurophysiology has been a subject of study since as early as 4,000 B.C. In the early B.C. years, most studies were of different natural sedatives like alcohol and poppy plants. In 1700 B.C., the Edwin Smith surgical papyrus was written
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Neuropsychological Assessment
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to determine the area of the brain which may have been damaged following brain injury or neurological illness . With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, location of space-occupying lesions can now be more accurately determined through this method, so the focus has now moved on to the assessment of cognition and behaviour , including examining the effects of any brain injury or neuropathological process that a person may have experienced. A core part of neuropsychological assessment is the administration of neuropsychological tests for the formal assessment of cognitive function, though neuropsychological testing is more than the administration and scoring of tests and screening tools. It is essential that neuropsychological assessment also include an evaluation of the person's mental status . This is especially true in assessment of Alzheimer\'s disease and other forms of dementia . Aspects of cognitive functioning that are assessed typically include orientation, new-learning/memory, intelligence, language, visuoperception, and executive function . However, clinical neuropsychological assessment is more than this and also focuses on a person's psychological, personal, interpersonal and wider contextual circumstances
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Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
REHABILITATION of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma . Three common neuropsychological problems treatable with rehabilitation are attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concussion , and spinal cord injury . Rehabilitation research and practices are a fertile area for clinical neuropsychologists and others. CONTENTS * 1 Methods * 2 ADHD * 3 Concussion * 4 See also * 5 References METHODS Speech therapy , occupational therapy , and other methods that "exercise" specific brain functions are used. For example, eye–hand coordination exercises may rehabilitate certain motor deficits, or well structured planning and organizing exercises might help rehabilitate executive functions , following a traumatic blow to the head. Brain functions that are impaired because of traumatic brain injuries are often the most challenging and difficult to rehabilitate. Much work is being done in nerve regeneration for the most severely damaged neural pathways. Neurocognitive techniques, such as cognitive rehabilitation therapy , provide assessment and treatment of cognitive impairments from a variety of brain diseases and insults that cause persistent disability for many individuals
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Traumatic Brain Injury
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI), also known as INTRACRANIAL INJURY, occurs when an external force injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury ), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury is a broader category that may involve damage to other structures such as the scalp and skull. TBI can result in physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral symptoms, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. Causes include falls, vehicle collisions, and violence. Brain trauma occurs as a consequence of a sudden acceleration or deceleration within the cranium or by a complex combination of both movement and sudden impact. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, a variety of events in the minutes to days following the injury may result in _secondary injury_. These processes include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull . Some of the imaging techniques used for diagnosis include computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs). Prevention measures include use of protective technology in vehicles, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of collisions, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws
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Brain Function
The BRAIN is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision . The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons , each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons , which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically , the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body. The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones . This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment . Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia , but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. The operations of individual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the way they cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved
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