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Leader
Leadership
Leadership
is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.[citation needed] Specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also (within the West) United States versus European approaches. U.S
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List Of Psychologists
This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. Specialized lists of psychologists can be found at the articles on comparative psychology, list of clinical psychologists, list of developmental psychologists, list of educational psychologists, list of evolutionary psychologists, list of social psychologists, and list of cognitive scientists. Many psychologists included in those lists are also listed below:Contents: Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit]Haly Abbas (Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi) Alfred Adler Mary Ainsworth George Albee Jüri Allik Lauren Alloy Gordon Allport, personality psychology Adelbert Ames, Jr. Harlene Anderson John R. Anderson Ernst Angel Heinz Ansbacher Michael Argyle Magda B
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Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic
Humanistic
psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.[1] With its roots running from Socrates
Socrates
through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own capabilities and creativity. It helps the client gain the belief that all people are inherently good.[2] It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and positive human potential
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Psychology
Psychology
Psychology
is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[1][2] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist
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Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology
Clinical psychology
is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.[1][2] Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.[3] In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The field is generally considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University
University
of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment
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Community Psychology
Community
Community
psychology studies the individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society,[1] and the relationships of the individual to communities and society. Community
Community
psychologists seek to understand the quality of life of individuals within groups, organizations and institutions, communities, and society
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Counseling Psychology
Counseling psychology
Counseling psychology
is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person–environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities.[1] In Australia, counseling psychology programs are accredited by the Australia
Australia
Psychological
Psychological
Society (APS)
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Environmental Psychology
Environmental psychology
Environmental psychology
is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aimed at solving complex environmental problems in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society.[1] When solving problems involving human-environment interactions, whether global or local, one must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will respond well
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Human Factors And Ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
(commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest. [1] The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, and user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities
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Forensic Psychology
Forensic psychology
Forensic psychology
is the intersection between psychology and the justice system. It involves understanding fundamental legal principles, particularly with regard to expert witness testimony and the specific content area of concern (e.g., competence to stand trial, child custody and visitation, or workplace discrimination), as well as relevant jurisdictional considerations (e.g., in the United States, the definition of insanity in criminal trials differs from state to state) in order to be able to interact appropriately with judges, attorneys, and other legal professionals
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Health Psychology
Health psychology
Health psychology
is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.[1] It is concerned with understanding how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness. Psychological
Psychological
factors can affect health directly. For example, chronically occurring environmental stressors affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. Behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For example, certain behaviors can, over time, harm (smoking or consuming excessive amounts of alcohol) or enhance health (engaging in exercise).[2] Health psychologists take a biopsychosocial approach
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Legal Psychology
Legal psychology
Legal psychology
involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law. Legal psychologists typically take basic social and cognitive principles and apply them to issues in the legal system such as eyewitness memory, jury decision-making, investigations, and interviewing. The term "legal psychology" has only recently come into usage, primarily as a way to differentiate the experimental focus of legal psychology from the clinically-oriented forensic psychology. Together, legal psychology and forensic psychology form the field more generally recognized as "psychology and law"
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Social Psychology
Social psychology
Social psychology
is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.[1] In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences even when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others. They study conditions under which certain behavior, actions, and feelings occur
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Medical Psychology
Medical psychology
Medical psychology
is the application of psychological principles to the practice of medicine, primarily drug-oriented, for both physical and mental disorders. The American Society for the Advancement of Pharmacotherapy defines medical psychology as "that branch of psychology integrating somatic and psychotherapeutic modalities into the management of mental illness and emotional, cognitive, behavioral and substance use disorders". A medical psychologist who holds prescriptive authority for specific psychiatric medications and other pharmaceutical drugs must first obtain specific qualifications in Psychopharmacology.[1] A trained medical psych
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Military Psychology
Military
Military
psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and empirical data towards understanding, predicting, and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or the civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations. Military
Military
psychology transforms from sub-branch groups of different psychology disciplines into a tool used by the military, as will all tools of the military, to enable the troops to better survive the stresses of war while using psychological principles to unbalance the enemy forces for easier wins.[1] All stresses and psychological illnesses that military psychology looks at are not specific only to the military. However, soldiers tend to face a specific combination of these otherwise generic stresses
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Music Psychology
Music
Music
psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated into everyday life.[1][2] Modern music psychology is primarily empirical; its knowledge tends to advance on the basis of interpretations of data collected by systematic observation of and interaction with human participants. Music
Music
psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human attitude, skill, performance, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior. Music
Music
psychology can shed light on non-psychological aspects of musicology and musical practice
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