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Leadenhall Building
122 LEADENHALL STREET, officially known as the LEADENHALL BUILDING, is a 225 m (737 ft) tall building on Leadenhall Street in London. The commercial skyscraper , opened in July 2014, was designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners and is informally known as "The Cheesegrater " because of its distinctive wedge shape. It is one of a number of new tall buildings recently completed or currently under construction in the City of London
London
financial area, including 20 Fenchurch Street , 22 Bishopsgate , and The Scalpel . The building is opposite the Lloyd\'s building , also designed by Rogers, which is the home of the insurance market Lloyd\'s of London
London
. Until 2007 the Leadenhall site was occupied by the P&O Tower (Peninsular and Oriental), a building owned by the developer British Land and designed by Gollins Melvin Ward Partnership that was completed in 1968 as a brother to the still existing Commercial Union tower , now called St. Helen's. That building was demolished in preparation for redevelopment of the site. The project, initially delayed due to the financial crisis , was revived in 2010 and Oxford Properties co-developed the property in partnership with British Land. In March 2017 British Land and Oxford Properties agreed to sell the building to C C Land , a Chinese property developer, for £1.15 billion
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Heron Tower
Coordinates : 51°30′58″N 0°4′51″W / 51.51611°N 0.08083°W / 51.51611; -0.08083 HERON TOWER GENERAL INFORMATION STATUS Complete TYPE Commercial LOCATION London
London
, EC2 United Kingdom CONSTRUCTION STARTED 2007 COMPLETED 2011 HEIGHT ANTENNA SPIRE 230 metres (755 ft) ROOF 202 metres (663 ft) DIMENSIONS OTHER DIMENSIONS 2,400-square-metre (26,000 sq ft) site TECHNICAL DETAILS FLOOR COUNT 46 FLOOR AREA 461,478 sq ft (43,000 m2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT Kohn Pedersen Fox STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Arup MAIN CONTRACTOR Skanska WEBSITE http://www.salesforce-tower.com The lobby features a 70,000-litre aquarium containing hundreds of fish. The HERON TOWER (officially 110 BISHOPSGATE) is a commercial skyscraper in London. It stands 230 metres (755 ft) tall including its 28-metre (92 ft) mast (202 metres (663 ft) excluding the mast) making it the tallest building in the City of London
London
financial district and the third tallest in Greater London
London
and the United Kingdom, after the Shard in Southwark
Southwark
and One Canada Square at Canary Wharf. The Heron Tower is located on Bishopsgate and is bordered by Camomile Street , Outwich Street and Houndsditch
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30 St Mary Axe
30 ST MARY AXE (informally known as the GHERKIN and previously as the SWISS RE BUILDING) is a commercial skyscraper in London
London
's primary financial district, the City of London
London
. It was completed in December 2003 and opened in April 2004. With 41 storeys, it is 180 metres (591 ft) tall and stands on the former sites of the Baltic Exchange and Chamber of Shipping, which were extensively damaged in 1992 by the explosion of a bomb placed by the Provisional IRA in St Mary Axe
St Mary Axe
, the street from which the tower takes its name. After plans to build the 92-storey Millennium Tower were dropped, 30 St Mary Axe
St Mary Axe
was designed by Norman Foster and Arup Group and it was erected by Skanska , with construction commencing in 2001. The building has become a recognisable feature of London
London
and is one of the city's most widely recognised examples of contemporary architecture
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Lloyd's Building
The LLOYD\'S BUILDING (sometimes known as THE INSIDE-OUT BUILDING) is the home of the insurance institution Lloyd\'s of London
London
. It is located on the former site of East India House in Lime Street , in London's main financial district, the City of London
London
. The building is a leading example of radical Bowellism architecture in which the services for the building, such as ducts and lifts , are located on the exterior to maximise space in the interior. Twenty-five years after completion in 1986, the building received Grade I listing in 2011; it was the youngest structure ever to obtain this status. It is said by Historic England to be "universally recognised as one of the key buildings of the modern epoch". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 3 In popular culture * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe first Lloyd's building
Lloyd's building
(address 12 Leadenhall Street ) had been built on this site in 1928. In 1958, due to expansion of the market, a new building was constructed across the road at 51 Lime Street (now the site of the Willis Building ). Lloyd's now occupied the Heysham Building and the Cooper Building. By the 1970s Lloyd's had again outgrown these two buildings and proposed to extend the Cooper Building
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Monument To The Great Fire Of London
The MONUMENT TO THE GREAT FIRE OF LONDON, more commonly known simply as the MONUMENT, is a Doric column in the City of London
City of London
, near the northern end of London Bridge
London Bridge
, that commemorates the Great Fire of London . It stands at the junction of Monument Street and Fish Street Hill, 202 ft (62 m) tall and 202 ft (62 m) from the spot in Pudding Lane where the Great Fire started on 2 September 1666. Another monument, the Golden Boy of Pye Corner , marks the point near Smithfield where the fire was stopped. Constructed between 1671 and 1677, it was built on the site of St. Margaret\'s, Fish Street , the first church to be burnt down by the Great Fire. The Monument comprises a fluted Doric column built of Portland stone topped with a gilded urn of fire. It was designed by Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
. Its height marks its distance from the site of the shop of Thomas Farriner (or Farynor), the king's baker, where the Great Fire began. The top of the Monument is reached by a narrow winding staircase of 311 steps. A mesh cage was added in the mid-19th century at the top to prevent people jumping off, after six people had committed suicide from the structure between 1788 and 1842. Three sides of the base carry inscriptions in Latin
Latin
. The one on the south side describes actions taken by King Charles II following the fire
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Postmodern Architecture
POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture , particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe . The movement was given a doctrine by the architect and architectural theorist Robert Venturi in his 1966 book _Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture_. The style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s, particularly in the work of Venturi, Philip Johnson , Charles Moore and Michael Graves . In the late 1990s it divided into a multitude of new tendencies, including high-tech architecture , neo-classicism and deconstructivism
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High-tech Architecture
HIGH-TECH ARCHITECTURE, also known as STRUCTURAL EXPRESSIONISM, is a type of LATE MODERN architectural style that emerged in the 1970s, incorporating elements of high-tech industry and technology into building design. High-tech architecture appeared as revamped modernism , an extension of those previous ideas helped by even more technological advances. This category serves as a bridge between modernism and post-modernism ; however, there remain gray areas as to where one category ends and the other begins. In the 1980s, high-tech architecture became more difficult to distinguish from post-modern architecture. Some of its themes and ideas were later absorbed into the style of Neo-Futurism art and architectural movement. Like Brutalism , Structural Expressionist buildings reveal their structure on the outside as well as the inside, but with visual emphasis placed on the internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure as opposed to exterior concrete walls. In buildings such as the Pompidou Centre , this idea of revealed structure is taken to the extreme, with apparently structural components serving little or no structural role. In this case, the use of "structural" steel is a stylistic or aesthetic matter
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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EC Postcode Area
A POSTAL CODE (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a POSTCODE, POST CODE, EIRCODE, PIN CODE or ZIP CODE) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail . In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems. Although postal codes are usually assigned to geographical areas, special codes are sometimes assigned to individual addresses or to institutions that receive large volumes of mail, such as government agencies and large commercial companies. One example is the French CEDEX system
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Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners
PARTNER or THE PARTNER may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Books * 2 Companies and brands * 3 Sports and horse racing * 4 Film and TV * 4.1 Film * 4.2 TV * 5 Music * 5.1 Albums * 6 Other uses * 7 See also BOOKS * The Partner , by John Grisham, 1979 * The Partner (Jenaro Prieto novel) , 1928 * The Partners (book) , a 1983 book by James B
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Arup Group
ARUP (officially ARUP GROUP LIMITED) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London
London
which provides engineering, design, planning , project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment . The firm has over 14,000 staff based in 92 offices across 42 countries, and is present in Africa
Africa
, the Americas, Australasia , East Asia, Europe
Europe
and the Middle East
Middle East
. Arup has participated in projects in over 160 countries. Arup is owned by trusts , the beneficiaries of which are Arup's past and present employees, who receive a share of the firm's operating profit each year. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable projects * 2.1 Africa
Africa
* 2.2 The Americas * 2.3 Asia * 2.4 Australia * 2.5 Europe
Europe
* 2.6 Sports * 3 Awards * 4 Fellows * 5 Notable alumni and current staff * 6 Related companies * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe firm was founded in London
London
in 1946, as the Ove N. Arup Consulting Engineers by Ove Arup
Ove Arup
. He set out to build a firm where professionals of diverse disciplines could work together to produce projects of greater quality than was achievable by them working in isolation
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Leadenhall Street
LEADENHALL STREET (/ˈlɛdənˌhɔːl/ ) is a road in London that is about 0.3 miles (500 m) long and links Cornhill and Bishopsgate in the west to St. Botolph Street and Aldgate in the east. It is situated in the City of London
City of London
, which is the historic nucleus of modern London as well its primary financial district. It was formerly the start of the A11 road from London to Norwich
Norwich
, but that route now originates on Aldgate High Street , just east of Leadenhall Street. The Aldgate Pump is located at the east end of the street. During much of the 18th and 19th centuries its name was synonymous with the East India Company
East India Company
, which had its headquarters there. Today it is perhaps most widely associated with the insurance industry and particularly the Lloyd\'s insurance market , whose 1928-1958 building fronted onto the street, and whose current building since 1986 also has an entrance on Leadenhall Street. The nearest London Underground
London Underground
station is Aldgate (Circle and Metropolitan lines ), and the closest mainline railway station is Fenchurch Street
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Skyscraper
A SKYSCRAPER is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors . When the term was originally used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors but now describes one of at least 40–50 floors. Mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses, a skyscraper can also be called a high-rise , but the term "skyscraper" is often used for buildings higher than 100 m (328 ft). For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term "supertall" can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as "megatall". One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls . These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete . Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure , and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic, and other lateral loads
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Grater
A box grater with multiple grating surfaces * Box grater with vegetable slicing surface displayed A GRATER (also known as a SHREDDER) is a kitchen utensil used to grate foods into fine pieces. It was invented by François Boullier in the 1540s, originally to grate cheese . CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Food preparation * 1.2 In music * 2 History * 3 Variants * 4 Images * 5 In popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References USESFOOD PREPARATION Cheese
Cheese
grater Several types of graters feature different sizes of grating slots, and can therefore aid in the preparation of a variety of foods. They are commonly used to grate cheese and lemon or orange peel (to create zest ), and can also be used to grate other soft foods. They are commonly used in the preparation of toasted cheese , Welsh rarebit , and dishes which contain cheese sauce such as macaroni and cheese , cauliflower cheese . In Slavic cuisine , graters are commonly used to grate potatoes , for preparation of, e.g., draniki , bramborak or potato babka . In tropical countries graters are also used to grate coconut meat. In Indian subcontinent , grater is used for preparation of a popular dessert, Gajar Ka Halwa
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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20 Fenchurch Street
20 FENCHURCH STREET is a commercial skyscraper in London that takes its name from its address on Fenchurch Street , in the historic City of London financial district. It has been nicknamed 'The Walkie-Talkie ' because of its distinctive shape. Construction was completed in spring 2014, and the top-floor 'sky garden' was opened in January 2015. The 34-storey building is 160 m (525 ft) tall, making it the sixth-tallest building in the City of London and the 12th tallest in London. Designed by architect Rafael Viñoly and costing over £200 million, 20 Fenchurch Street features a highly distinctive top-heavy form which appears to burst upward and outward. A large viewing deck, bar and restaurants are included on the top three floors; these are, with restrictions, open to the public. The tower was originally proposed at nearly 200 m (656 ft) tall but its design was scaled down after concerns about its visual impact on the nearby St Paul\'s Cathedral and Tower of London . It was subsequently approved in 2006 with the revised height. Even after the height reduction there were continued concerns from heritage groups about its impact on the surrounding area. The project was consequently the subject of a public inquiry ; in 2007 this ruled in the developers' favour and the building was granted full planning permission
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