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Le Coq Sportif, Mercer Street, London 01
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London
London
has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it Londinium . London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex
Middlesex
, Essex
Essex
, Surrey
Surrey
, Kent
Kent
, and Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London
Mayor of London
and the London Assembly
London Assembly
. London
London
is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world
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Greater London
LONDON, or GREATER LONDON, is a county and region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London . It is organised into 33 local government districts : the 32 London boroughs (which makes up the ceremonial county of Greater London) and the City of London (which is a separate county but still part of the region). The Greater London Authority , based in Southwark , is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963 . Administratively, Greater London was first established as a _sui generis _ council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000. The region covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232. The Greater London Built-up Area —used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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Heron Tower
Coordinates : 51°30′58″N 0°4′51″W / 51.51611°N 0.08083°W / 51.51611; -0.08083 HERON TOWER GENERAL INFORMATION STATUS Complete TYPE Commercial LOCATION London
London
, EC2 United Kingdom CONSTRUCTION STARTED 2007 COMPLETED 2011 HEIGHT ANTENNA SPIRE 230 metres (755 ft) ROOF 202 metres (663 ft) DIMENSIONS OTHER DIMENSIONS 2,400-square-metre (26,000 sq ft) site TECHNICAL DETAILS FLOOR COUNT 46 FLOOR AREA 461,478 sq ft (43,000 m2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT Kohn Pedersen Fox STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Arup MAIN CONTRACTOR Skanska WEBSITE http://www.salesforce-tower.com The lobby features a 70,000-litre aquarium containing hundreds of fish. The HERON TOWER (officially 110 BISHOPSGATE) is a commercial skyscraper in London. It stands 230 metres (755 ft) tall including its 28-metre (92 ft) mast (202 metres (663 ft) excluding the mast) making it the tallest building in the City of London
London
financial district and the third tallest in Greater London
London
and the United Kingdom, after the Shard in Southwark
Southwark
and One Canada Square at Canary Wharf. The Heron Tower is located on Bishopsgate and is bordered by Camomile Street , Outwich Street and Houndsditch
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Tower 42
TOWER 42 is the third tallest skyscraper in the City of London
City of London
and the eighth tallest in Greater London
London
. Its original name was the NATWEST TOWER (or NATIONAL WESTMINSTER TOWER), having been built to house NatWest 's international headquarters. It is still commonly referred to as the NatWest Tower. Seen from above, the shape of the tower resembles that of the NatWest logo (three chevrons in a hexagonal arrangement). The tower, designed by Richard Seifert and engineered by Pell Frischmann , is located at 25 Old Broad Street. It was built by John Mowlem "> The tower's shape has been compared to that of the logo for NatWest, although its architect Richard Seifert always denied the similarity. Simplified plan and dimetric projection showing the shape of the top of Tower 42. The National Westminster Tower's status as the first skyscraper in the City was a coup for NatWest, but was extremely controversial at the time, as it was a major departure from the previous restrictions on tall buildings in London. The original concept dates back to the early 1960s, predating the formation of the National Westminster Bank. The site was then the headquarters of the National Provincial Bank
National Provincial Bank
, with offices in Old Broad Street backing onto its flagship branch at 15 Bishopsgate
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30 St Mary Axe
30 ST MARY AXE (informally known as the GHERKIN and previously as the SWISS RE BUILDING) is a commercial skyscraper in London
London
's primary financial district, the City of London
London
. It was completed in December 2003 and opened in April 2004. With 41 storeys, it is 180 metres (591 ft) tall and stands on the former sites of the Baltic Exchange and Chamber of Shipping, which were extensively damaged in 1992 by the explosion of a bomb placed by the Provisional IRA in St Mary Axe
St Mary Axe
, the street from which the tower takes its name. After plans to build the 92-storey Millennium Tower were dropped, 30 St Mary Axe
St Mary Axe
was designed by Norman Foster and Arup Group and it was erected by Skanska , with construction commencing in 2001. The building has become a recognisable feature of London
London
and is one of the city's most widely recognised examples of contemporary architecture
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Leadenhall Building
122 LEADENHALL STREET, officially known as the LEADENHALL BUILDING, is a 225 m (737 ft) tall building on Leadenhall Street in London. The commercial skyscraper , opened in July 2014, was designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners and is informally known as "The Cheesegrater " because of its distinctive wedge shape. It is one of a number of new tall buildings recently completed or currently under construction in the City of London
London
financial area, including 20 Fenchurch Street , 22 Bishopsgate , and The Scalpel . The building is opposite the Lloyd\'s building , also designed by Rogers, which is the home of the insurance market Lloyd\'s of London
London
. Until 2007 the Leadenhall site was occupied by the P&O Tower (Peninsular and Oriental), a building owned by the developer British Land and designed by Gollins Melvin Ward Partnership that was completed in 1968 as a brother to the still existing Commercial Union tower , now called St. Helen's. That building was demolished in preparation for redevelopment of the site. The project, initially delayed due to the financial crisis , was revived in 2010 and Oxford Properties co-developed the property in partnership with British Land. In March 2017 British Land and Oxford Properties agreed to sell the building to C C Land , a Chinese property developer, for £1.15 billion
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Willis Building (London)
The WILLIS BUILDING is a commercial skyscraper in London
London
named after the primary tenant, Willis Group . It is located on Lime Street in the City of London
London
financial district. The building was designed by Norman Foster and developed by British Land . It stands opposite the Lloyd\'s building and is 125 metres (410 ft) tall, with 26 storeys. It features a "stepped" design, which was intended to resemble the shell of a crustacean, with setbacks rising at 97 m (318 ft) and 68 m (223 ft). In total, there are 475,000 square feet (44,128.9 m2) of office floor-space, most of which was pre-let to the insurance broker Willis. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe Willis Building was constructed between 2004 and 2008 under the management of Mace and represented a significant addition to the City of London
London
skyline, becoming its fourth-tallest building after Tower 42 , 30 St Mary Axe and CityPoint . The core was topped out in July 2006 and the steelwork completed in September that year. Cladding began in July 2006 and the structure was externally completed by June 2007. It was internally fitted out and officially opened in April 2008. The building was the first in a wave of new tall towers for London's primary financial district
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Lloyds Building
The LLOYD\'S BUILDING (sometimes known as THE INSIDE-OUT BUILDING) is the home of the insurance institution Lloyd\'s of London . It is located on the former site of East India House in Lime Street , in London's main financial district, the City of London . The building is a leading example of radical Bowellism architecture in which the services for the building, such as ducts and lifts , are located on the exterior to maximise space in the interior. Twenty-five years after completion in 1986, the building received Grade I listing in 2011; it was the youngest structure ever to obtain this status. It is said by Historic England to be "universally recognised as one of the key buildings of the modern epoch". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 3 In popular culture * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe first Lloyd's building (address 12 Leadenhall Street ) had been built on this site in 1928. In 1958, due to expansion of the market, a new building was constructed across the road at 51 Lime Street (now the site of the Willis Building ). Lloyd's now occupied the Heysham Building and the Cooper Building. By the 1970s Lloyd's had again outgrown these two buildings and proposed to extend the Cooper Building
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Canary Wharf
CANARY WHARF is a major business district in east London, within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets . It is one of the United Kingdom's two main financial centres – along with the traditional City of London – and contains many of Europe's tallest buildings, including the second-tallest in the UK, One Canada Square . Canary Wharf contains around 16,000,000 square feet (1,500,000 m2) of office and retail space, of which around 7,900,000 square feet (730,000 m2) (about 49%) is owned by Canary Wharf Group . Around 105,000 people work in Canary Wharf, and it is home to the world or European headquarters of numerous major banks, professional services firms, and media organisations, including Barclays , Citigroup , Clifford Chance , Credit Suisse , EY , Fitch Ratings , HSBC , Infosys , J.P. Morgan , KPMG , MetLife , Moody\'s , Morgan Stanley , RBC , S"> Map of Canary Wharf area in 1899 showing West India Docks and the Isle of Dogs Canary Wharf aerial view (2009), from the southeast end of the Isle of Dogs , showing the Millwall Dock . Canary Wharf, view east from Cabot Square
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20 Fenchurch Street
20 FENCHURCH STREET is a commercial skyscraper in London that takes its name from its address on Fenchurch Street , in the historic City of London financial district. It has been nicknamed 'The Walkie-Talkie ' because of its distinctive shape. Construction was completed in spring 2014, and the top-floor 'sky garden' was opened in January 2015. The 34-storey building is 160 m (525 ft) tall, making it the sixth-tallest building in the City of London and the 12th tallest in London. Designed by architect Rafael Viñoly and costing over £200 million, 20 Fenchurch Street features a highly distinctive top-heavy form which appears to burst upward and outward. A large viewing deck, bar and restaurants are included on the top three floors; these are, with restrictions, open to the public. The tower was originally proposed at nearly 200 m (656 ft) tall but its design was scaled down after concerns about its visual impact on the nearby St Paul\'s Cathedral and Tower of London . It was subsequently approved in 2006 with the revised height. Even after the height reduction there were continued concerns from heritage groups about its impact on the surrounding area. The project was consequently the subject of a public inquiry ; in 2007 this ruled in the developers' favour and the building was granted full planning permission
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London Underground
The LONDON UNDERGROUND (also known simply as THE UNDERGROUND, or by its nickname THE TUBE) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire , Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway , which opened in 1863, is now part of the Circle , Hammersmith the first line to operate underground electric traction trains , the City later, smaller, roughly circular tunnels – which gave rise to its nickname, the Tube – were dug through at a deeper level. The system has 270 stations and 250 miles (400 km) of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is actually underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with less than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames . The early tube lines, originally owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and eventually merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form _London Transport_ under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB)
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Elizabeth Tower
BIG BEN is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower as well. The tower is officially known as ELIZABETH TOWER, renamed to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 2012; previously, it was known simply as the CLOCK TOWER. When completed in 1859, it was, says clockmaker Ian Westworth, “the prince of timekeepers: the biggest, most accurate four-faced striking and chiming clock in the world.” The tower had its 150th anniversary on 31 May 2009, during which celebratory events took place. A British cultural icon , the tower is one of the most prominent symbols of the United Kingdom and is often in the establishing shot of films set in London
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Trafalgar Square
TRAFALGAR SQUARE (/ˌtrəˈfælɡər/ _trə-FAL-gər_ ) is a public square in the City of Westminster , Central London , built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross . Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar , a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar , Spain. The site of Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 13th century and originally contained the King\'s Mews . After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace , the area was redeveloped by John Nash , but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. The 169-foot (52 m) Nelson\'s Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth , left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999. The square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations , including Bloody Sunday , the first Aldermaston March , anti-war protests, and campaigns against climate change . A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year\'s Eve
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London Eye
British Airways
British Airways
London Eye
London Eye
(1999-2008) Merlin Entertainments London Eye
London Eye
(2009-2011) EDF Energy London Eye
London Eye
(2011-2014) ALTERNATIVE NAMES Millennium Wheel GENERAL INFORMATION STATUS Complete TYPE Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
LOCATION Westminster, London ADDRESS Riverside Building, County Hall, Westminster Bridge Road COUNTRY United Kingdom COORDINATES 51°30′12″N 0°07′10″W / 51.5033°N 0.1194°W / 51.5033; -0.1194 Coordinates : 51°30′12″N 0°07′10″W / 51.5033°N 0.1194°W / 51.5033; -0.1194 COMPLETED March 2000 OPENED 31 December 1999 (ceremonial, without passengers) 1 February 2000 (first passengers carried) 9 March 2000 (opened to general public) COST £70 million OWNER Merlin Entertainments HEIGHT 135 metres (443 ft) DIMENSIONS DIAMETER 120 metres (394 ft) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT Frank Anatole, Nic Bailey, Julia Barfield , Steve Chilton, Malcolm Cook, David Marks, Mark Sparrowhawk ARCHITECTURE FIRM Marks Barfield ENGINEER Arup WEBSITE www.londoneye.comThe LONDON EYE is a giant Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
on the South Bank
South Bank
of the River Thames in London
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