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Laurentide Ice Sheet
The Laurentide Ice Sheet
Laurentide Ice Sheet
was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada
Canada
and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary
Quaternary
glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.[1] The last advance covered most of northern North America between c. 95,000 and c. 20,000 years before the present day, and among other geomorphological effects, gouged out the five Great Lakes and the hosts of smaller lakes of the Canadian shield
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Greenland Sea
The Greenland
Greenland
Sea
Sea
is a body of water that borders Greenland
Greenland
to the west, the Svalbard
Svalbard
archipelago to the east, Fram Strait
Fram Strait
and the Arctic Ocean
Ocean
to the north, and the Norwegian Sea
Sea
and Iceland
Iceland
to the south. The Greenland
Greenland
Sea
Sea
is often defined as part of the Arctic Ocean,[1][2][3] sometimes as part of the Atlantic Ocean.[4] However, definitions of the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
and its seas tend to be imprecise or arbitrary
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Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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Quebec
Quebec (/k(w)ɪˈbɛk/ ( listen);[8] French: Québec [kebɛk] ( listen))[9] is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger
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Nunatak
A nunatak (from Inuit nunataq) is an exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within (or at the edge of) an ice field or glacier. They are also called glacial islands.[2] Examples are natural pyramidal peaks. The word is of Greenlandic origin[3] and has been used in English since the 1870s.Contents1 Description 2 List 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The term is typically used in areas where a permanent ice sheet is present and the nunataks protrude above the sheet.[4] Nunataks present readily identifiable landmark reference points in glaciers or ice caps and are often named
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Moraines
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris previously carried along by a glacier and normally consist of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour. Lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier
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Eskers
An esker, eskar, eschar, or os, sometimes called an asar, osar, or serpent kame,[1][2] is a long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America. Eskers are frequently several kilometres long and, because of their peculiar uniform shape, are somewhat like railway embankments.[3]Contents1 Etymology 2 Geology 3 Life on eskers 4 Examples of eskers 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymologyPortions of the Denali Highway
Denali Highway
in Alaska
Alaska
are built on eskersThe term esker is derived from the Irish word eiscir (Old Irish: escir), which means "ridge or elevation, especially one separating two plains or depressed surfaces".[4] The Irish word was and is used particularly to describe long sinuous ridges, which are now known to be deposits of fluvio-glacial material
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Glacial Till
Till
Till
or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment. Till
Till
is derived from the erosion and entrainment of material by the moving ice of a glacier. It is deposited some distance down-ice to form terminal, lateral, medial and ground moraines. Till
Till
is classified into primary deposits, laid down directly by glaciers, and secondary deposits, reworked by fluvial transport and other processes.Contents1 Processes 2 Tillite 3 Types 4 See also 5 ReferencesProcesses[edit] Glacial drift is the coarsely graded and extremely heterogeneous sediment of a glacier; till is the part of glacial drift deposited directly by the glacier. Its content may vary from clays to mixtures of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders. This material is mostly derived from the subglacial erosion and entrainment by the moving ice of the glaciers of previously available unconsolidated sediments
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Glacial Lake Iroquois
Glacial Lake Iroquois
Glacial Lake Iroquois
was a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed at the end of the last ice age approximately 13,000 years ago.[1] The lake was essentially an enlargement of the present Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
that formed because the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
downstream from the lake was blocked by the ice sheet near the present Thousand Islands. The level of the lake was approximately 30 m (~100 ft) above the present level of Lake Ontario.[2] The lake drained to the southeast, through a channel passing near present day Rome, New York. The Rome Sand Plains
Rome Sand Plains
has several sand ridges that geologists think were formed at this time
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Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Ontario
is one of the five Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters". Its primary inlet is the Niagara River
Niagara River
from Lake Erie
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Wea

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Jet Stream
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth.[1] On Earth, the main jet streams are located near the altitude of the tropopause and are westerly winds (flowing west to east). Their paths typically have a meandering shape. Jet streams may start, stop, split into two or more parts, combine into one stream, or flow in various directions including opposite to the direction of the remainder of the jet. The strongest jet streams are the polar jets, at 9–12 km (30,000–39,000 ft) above sea level, and the higher altitude and somewhat weaker subtropical jets at 10–16 km (33,000–52,000 ft). The Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and the Southern Hemisphere each have a polar jet and a subtropical jet
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Montana
Montana
Montana
/mɒnˈtænə/ ( listen) is a U.S. state
U.S. state
in the northwestern region of the United States. Montana
Montana
has several nicknames, although none official,[6] including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", and slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more recently "The Last Best Place".[7] Montana
Montana
is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, and the 3rd most sparsely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The western third of Montana
Montana
contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern half of Montana
Montana
is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. The economy is primarily based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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Southwestern United States
The Southwestern United States
United States
(also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States. Definitions of the region's boundaries vary a great deal and have never been standardized, though many boundaries have been proposed. For example, one definition includes the stretch from east of Los Angeles to El Paso, and from the Mexican border to south of Denver.[2] The population for that particular definition area is around 11 million people, with over half that in the state of Arizona
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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