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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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Flattening
Flattening
Flattening
is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively. Other terms used are ellipticity, or oblateness. The usual notation for flattening is f and its definition in terms of the semi-axes of the resulting ellipse or ellipsoid is f l a t t e n i n g = f = a − b a . displaystyle mathrm flattening =f= frac a-b a . The compression factor is b/a in each case. For the ellipse, this factor is also the aspect ratio of the ellipse. There are two other variants of flattening (see below) and when it is necessary to avoid confusion the above flattening is called the first flattening
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South Pole
Coordinates: 90°S 180°E / 90°S 180°E / -90; 180The Geographic South Pole. (The flag used on the flagpole is interchangeable.)Image taken by NASA
NASA
showing Antarctica
Antarctica
and the South Pole
South Pole
in 2005.South Geographic Pole South Magnetic Pole
South Magnetic Pole
(2007) South Geomagnetic Pole
South Geomagnetic Pole
(2005) South Pole
South Pole
of InaccessibilityThe South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole
South Pole
or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface
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Geographical Pole
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.[1] As with Earth's North and South Poles, they are usually called that body's "north pole" and "south pole", one lying 90 degrees in one direction from the body's equator and the other lying 90 degrees in the opposite direction from the equator. Every planet has geographical poles.[2] If, like the Earth, a body generates a magnetic field, it will also possess magnetic poles.[3] Perturbations in a body's rotation mean that geographical poles wander slightly on its surface
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Tropic Of Capricorn
Coordinates: 23°26′14″S 0°0′0″W / 23.43722°S -0.00000°E / -23.43722; -0.00000 (Prime Meridian)World map showing the Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
in 1794 Dunn Map
Map
of the WorldMonument marking the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
just north of Antofagasta, ChileLongreach, Queensland, AustraliaSign marking the tropic in Maringá, BrazilSundial on the Tropic of Capricorn, Jujuy Province, ArgentinaThe Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
(or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice. It is thus the southernmost latitude where the Sun can be directly overhead. Its northern equivalent is the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of Earth
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Antarctic Circle
The Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle is the most southerly of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The region south of this circle is known as the Antarctic, and the zone immediately to the north is called the Southern Temperate Zone
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Theodolite
An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveyingA theodolite /θiːˈɒdəlaɪt/ is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Theodolites are used mainly for surveying applications, and have been adapted for specialized purposes such as meteorology and rocket launch.[1] A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes: the horizontal or trunnion axis and the zenith axis. A theodolite measures vertical angles as angles between the zenith, forwards or plunged—typically approximately 90 and 270 degrees. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision, typically to milliradian or seconds of arc. A theodolite may be either transit or non-transit
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Epoch (astronomy)
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.[1] These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane, the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Axial Tilt
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.[1] It differs from orbital inclination. At an obliquity of zero, the two axes point in the same direction; i.e., the rotational axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. Earth's obliquity oscillates between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees[2] on a 41,000-year cycle; the earth's mean obliquity is currently 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) and decreasing. Over the course of an orbit, the obliquity usually does not change considerably, and the orientation of the axis remains the same relative to the background stars
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Cross Section (geometry)
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces. Cutting an object into slices creates many parallel cross sections
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Solstice
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun
Sun
appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. Two solstices occur annually, around June 21 and December 21. The seasons of the year are directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes. The term solstice can also be used in a broader sense, as the day when this occurs. The day of the solstice in either hemisphere has either the most sunlight of the year (summer solstice) or the least sunlight of the year (winter solstice) for any place other than the Equator. Alternative terms, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, are June solstice and December solstice, referring to the months of year in which they take place. [2] At latitudes outside the tropics, the summer solstice marks the day when the Sun
Sun
appears to reach its highest point in the sky
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Altitude
Altitude
Altitude
or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context
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Normal (geometry)
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object. For example, in the two-dimensional case, the normal line to a curve at a given point is the line perpendicular to the tangent line to the curve at the point. In the three-dimensional case a surface normal, or simply normal, to a surface at a point P is a vector that is perpendicular to the tangent plane to that surface at P. The word "normal" is also used as an adjective: a line normal to a plane, the normal component of a force, the normal vector, etc. The concept of normality generalizes to orthogonality. The concept has been generalized to differentiable manifolds of arbitrary dimension embedded in a Euclidean space. The normal vector space or normal space of a manifold at a point P is the set of the vectors which are orthogonal to the tangent space at P
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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South
South
South
is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points. South is the polar opposite of north and is perpendicular to east and west.Contents1 Etymology 2 Navigation 3 South
South
Pole 4 Geography 5 Other uses 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word south comes from Old English
Old English
sūþ, from earlier Proto-Germanic *sunþaz ("south"), possibly related to the same Proto-Indo-European root that the word sun derived from. Navigation[edit] By convention, the bottom side of a map is south, although reversed maps exist that defy this convention.[1] To go south using a compass for navigation, set a bearing or azimuth of 180°
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North
North
North
is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. North
North
is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography.Contents1 Etymology 2 Mapping 3 Magnetic north and declination 4 Roles of north as prime direction 5 Roles of east and west as inherently subsidiary directions 6 Cultural references 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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