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Latinisation Of Names
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent
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Romanization
ROMANIZATION (also spelled ROMANISATION: see spelling differences ), in linguistics , is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script , or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration , for representing written text, and transcription , for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into _phonemic transcription_, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict _phonetic transcription_, which records speech sounds with precision
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Personal Name
A PERSONAL NAME or full name the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group , with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth and legal names of the individual, seen below. The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy . In Western culture , nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, personal name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name, or family name)—respectively, the Thomas and Jefferson in Thomas Jefferson —the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan. Where there are two or more given names, typically only one (in English-speaking cultures usually the first) is used in normal speech
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Toponym
TOPONYMY is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Meaning and history * 3 Issues * 4 Noted toponymists * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words _tópos_ (τόπος) ("place") and _ónoma_ (ὄνομα) ("name"). Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics , the study of names of all kinds. MEANING AND HISTORY_Toponym_ is the general name for any place or geographical entity. Related, more specific types of toponym include _hydronym _ for a body of water and _oronym_ for a mountain or hill. A _toponymist_ is one who studies toponymy. According to the _ Oxford English Dictionary _, the word "toponymy" first appeared in English in 1876; since then, toponym has come to replace "place-name" in professional discourse among geographers
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753
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Romanisation
ROMANIZATION (also spelled ROMANISATION: see spelling differences ), in linguistics , is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script , or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration , for representing written text, and transcription , for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision
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Transliteration
TRANSLITERATION is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus _trans-_ + _liter-_) in predictable ways (such as α → a , д → d , χ → ch , or æ → e ). For instance, for the Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic ", the usual transliteration to Latin script is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script , "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Latin Alphabet
The CLASSICAL LATIN ALPHABET, also known as the ROMAN ALPHABET, is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language
Latin language
. The Latin
Latin
alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet , which was itself descended from the Phoenician abjad , which in turn was derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics . The Etruscans who ruled early Rome adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet which was modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet , which was in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin
Latin
alphabet
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Cyrillic
The CYRILLIC SCRIPT /sᵻˈrɪlɪk/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across eastern Europe and north and central Asia. It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire . It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of southeastern Europe and northern Eurasia , especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011 , around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union , following the Latin script and Greek script
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Geber (other)
GEBER is a Latinization of the name "Jābir" and may refer to: PEOPLE * Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
, an alchemist and writer of the eighth century * Pseudo-Geber , the author of a number of texts on alchemy known from fourteenth-century Latin editions * Jabir ibn Aflah , an astronomer and mathematician in twelfth-century Andalusia * Nick Geber , England-born, American sports radio and television personalityPLACES * Ezion-Geber , a biblical seaport on the northern extremity of the Gulf of Aqaba * Geber (crater) , a crater on the MoonSEE ALSO * Gever (other) * Jabir (name) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title GEBER. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Jabir (name)
JABIR (Arabic: جابر) is an Arabic surname or male given name, which means "comforter". Alternative spellings include Djābir, Jaber , Jābir, Gabir, and Geber
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Heinrich Meibom (doctor)
JOHANN HEINRICH MEIBOM ( Latin : Iohannes Henricus Meibomius; 29 June 1638 in Lübeck – 26 March 1700 in Helmstedt
Helmstedt
) was a German physician and scholar. LIFEHeinrich Meibom was the son of physician Johann Heinrich Meibom (1590-1655), who was the author of De Usu Flagrorum . He studied medicine at Helmstedt
Helmstedt
, Groningen and Leyden
Leyden
and afterwards traveled to Italy, France and England for scientific studies. He received his doctorate in 1663 in Angers
Angers
(France) and in 1664 accepted a professorship in medicine at the University of Helmstedt
Helmstedt
. In 1678 he also became professor for history and poetry. He held these positions until his death in 1700. His son, Brandanus Meibom (de), (1678-1740) was professor for Pathology , Semiotics , Botany and Medicine
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Daniel Santbech
DANIEL SANTBECH (fl. 1561) was a Dutch mathematician and astronomer . He adopted the Latinized name of NOVIOMAGUS, possibly suggesting that he came from the town of Nijmegen
Nijmegen
, called Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum by the Romans . In 1561, Santbech compiled a collected edition of the works of Regiomontanus (1436–1476), De triangulis planis et sphaericis libri quinque (first published in 1533) and Compositio tabularum sinum recto, as well as Santbech's own Problematum astronomicorum et geometricorum sectiones septem. It was published in Basel
Basel
by Henrich Petri and Petrus Perna . Santbech's work consisted of studies on astronomy , sundials , surveying , and levelling for water courses
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Gaulish
GAULISH is an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language spoken by the Celtic inhabitants of Gaul
Gaul
(modern France, Belgium and Northern Italy). In a wider sense, it also comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe ("Noric "), parts of the Balkans
Balkans
, and Asia Minor ("Galatian "), which are thought to have been closely related. The more divergent Lepontic of Northern Italy has also sometimes been subsumed under Gaulish. Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages
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Nijmegen
NIJMEGEN (Dutch pronunciation: ( listen ); Nijmeegs : Nimwegen ), historically anglicized as NIMEGUEN, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland . It is situated on the Waal river , close to the German border.