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Latinisation Of Names
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by: * transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir ), and/or * adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Romanization
ROMANIZATION (also spelled ROMANISATION: see spelling differences ), in linguistics , is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script , or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration , for representing written text, and transcription , for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into _phonemic transcription_, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict _phonetic transcription_, which records speech sounds with precision
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Personal Name
A PERSONAL NAME or full name the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group , with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth and legal names of the individual, seen below. The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy . In Western culture , nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, personal name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name, or family name)—respectively, the Thomas and Jefferson in Thomas Jefferson —the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan. Where there are two or more given names, typically only one (in English-speaking cultures usually the first) is used in normal speech. Some cultures, including Western, also add (or once added) patronymics or matronymics , for instance, as a middle name as with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (whose father's given name was Ilya), or as a last name as with Björk Guðmundsdóttir (whose father was named Guðmund) or Heiðar Helguson (whose mother was named Helga). Similar concepts are present in Eastern cultures. However, in less urbanized areas of the world, many people are known by a single name, and so are said to be mononymous
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Toponym
TOPONYMY is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Meaning and history * 3 Issues * 4 Noted toponymists * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words _tópos_ (τόπος) ("place") and _ónoma_ (ὄνομα) ("name"). Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics , the study of names of all kinds. MEANING AND HISTORY_Toponym_ is the general name for any place or geographical entity. Related, more specific types of toponym include _hydronym _ for a body of water and _oronym_ for a mountain or hill. A _toponymist_ is one who studies toponymy. According to the _ Oxford English Dictionary _, the word "toponymy" first appeared in English in 1876; since then, toponym has come to replace "place-name" in professional discourse among geographers . It can be argued that the first toponymists were the storytellers and poets who explained the origin of specific place names as part of their tales; sometimes place-names served as the basis for the etiological legends. The process of folk etymology usually took over, whereby a false meaning was extracted from a name based on its structure or sounds
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Romanisation
ROMANIZATION (also spelled ROMANISATION: see spelling differences ), in linguistics , is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script , or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration , for representing written text, and transcription , for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision
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Transliteration
TRANSLITERATION is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus _trans-_ + _liter-_) in predictable ways (such as α → a , д → d , χ → ch , or æ → e ). For instance, for the Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic ", the usual transliteration to Latin script is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script , "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously. Thus, in the above example, λλ is transliterated as 'll', but pronounced /l/; Δ is transliterated as 'D', but pronounced 'ð'; and η is transliterated as 'ē', though it is pronounced /i/ (exactly like ι) and is not long . Conversely, transcription notes the _sounds_ but not necessarily the spelling. So "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία" could be transcribed as "elinikí ðimokratía", which does not specify which of the /i/ sounds are written as η and which as ι
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Latin Alphabet
The CLASSICAL LATIN ALPHABET, also known as the ROMAN ALPHABET, is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language
Latin language
. The Latin
Latin
alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet , which was itself descended from the Phoenician abjad , which in turn was derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics . The Etruscans who ruled early Rome adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet which was modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet , which was in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin
Latin
alphabet. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the Latin
Latin
alphabet was used (sometimes with modifications) for writing Romance languages
Romance languages
, direct descendants of Latin
Latin
, as well as Celtic , Germanic , Baltic , and some Slavic languages . With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism , the Latin script spread beyond Europe
Europe
, coming into use for writing indigenous American , Australian , Austronesian , Austroasiatic
Austroasiatic
, and African languages
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Cyrillic
The CYRILLIC SCRIPT /sᵻˈrɪlɪk/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across eastern Europe and north and central Asia. It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire . It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of southeastern Europe and northern Eurasia , especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011 , around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union , following the Latin script and Greek script . Cyrillic is derived from the Greek uncial script , augmented by letters from the older Glagolitic alphabet , including some ligatures . These additional letters were used for Old Church Slavonic sounds not found in Greek. The script is named in honor of the two Byzantine brothers, Saints Cyril and Methodius , who created the Glagolitic alphabet earlier on. Modern scholars believe that Cyrillic was developed and formalized by early disciples of Cyril and Methodius
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Geber (other)
GEBER is a Latinization of the name "Jābir" and may refer to: PEOPLE * Jābir ibn Hayyān , an alchemist and writer of the eighth century * Pseudo-Geber , the author of a number of texts on alchemy known from fourteenth-century Latin editions * Jabir ibn Aflah
Jabir ibn Aflah
, an astronomer and mathematician in twelfth-century Andalusia * Nick Geber , England-born, American sports radio and television personalityPLACES * Ezion-Geber , a biblical seaport on the northern extremity of the Gulf of Aqaba * Geber (crater)
Geber (crater)
, a crater on the MoonSEE ALSO * Gever (other) * Jabir (name) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title GEBER. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Geber additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Jabir (name)
JABIR (Arabic: جابر) is an Arabic surname or male given name, which means "comforter". Alternative spellings include Djābir, Jaber , Jābir, Gabir, and Geber
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Heinrich Meibom (doctor)
JOHANN HEINRICH MEIBOM ( Latin
Latin
: Iohannes Henricus Meibomius; 29 June 1638 in Lübeck
Lübeck
– 26 March 1700 in Helmstedt
Helmstedt
) was a German physician and scholar. LIFEHeinrich Meibom was the son of physician Johann Heinrich Meibom (1590-1655), who was the author of De Usu Flagrorum . He studied medicine at Helmstedt
Helmstedt
, Groningen and Leyden
Leyden
and afterwards traveled to Italy, France and England for scientific studies. He received his doctorate in 1663 in Angers
Angers
(France) and in 1664 accepted a professorship in medicine at the University of Helmstedt
Helmstedt
. In 1678 he also became professor for history and poetry. He held these positions until his death in 1700. His son, Brandanus Meibom (de), (1678-1740) was professor for Pathology , Semiotics , Botany
Botany
and Medicine. WORKSMeibom wrote 57 medical treatises. He is known for his discovery of the sebaceous glands in the eyelid that are named after him, the Meibomian glands . Beyond that, Heinrich Meibom wrote Latin
Latin
poetry, which he published with his grandfather of the same name, Heinrich Meibom : Parodiarum horatianarum libri III et sylvarum libri II, 1588) published as "Rerum germanicarum scriptores" in 1688
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Daniel Santbech
DANIEL SANTBECH (fl. 1561) was a Dutch mathematician and astronomer . He adopted the Latinized name of NOVIOMAGUS, possibly suggesting that he came from the town of Nijmegen
Nijmegen
, called Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum by the Romans . In 1561, Santbech compiled a collected edition of the works of Regiomontanus
Regiomontanus
(1436–1476), De triangulis planis et sphaericis libri quinque (first published in 1533) and Compositio tabularum sinum recto, as well as Santbech's own Problematum astronomicorum et geometricorum sectiones septem. It was published in Basel
Basel
by Henrich Petri and Petrus Perna . Santbech's work consisted of studies on astronomy , sundials , surveying , and levelling for water courses. It also includes descriptions of astronomical instruments, information for navigators and geographers , and general information about astronomy in the first years after Nicolaus Copernicus . Santbech also studied the subject of gunnery and ballistics as a theoretic discourse as well as for the practical application of war, and utilized the foundations of geometry, with ample references to Euclid
Euclid
and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
, in order to do so. Santbech seem not to have been aware of similar studies by Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia
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Gaulish
GAULISH is an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language spoken by the Celtic inhabitants of Gaul
Gaul
(modern France, Belgium and Northern Italy). In a wider sense, it also comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe ("Noric "), parts of the Balkans
Balkans
, and Asia Minor ("Galatian "), which are thought to have been closely related. The more divergent Lepontic of Northern Italy has also sometimes been subsumed under Gaulish. Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages . The precise linguistic relationships among them, as well as between them and the modern Insular Celtic languages , are uncertain and a matter of ongoing debate because of their sparse attestation. Gaulish is found in about 800, often fragmentary, inscriptions including calendars, pottery accounts, funeral monuments, short dedications to gods, coin inscriptions, statements of ownership, and other texts, possibly curse tablets
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Nijmegen
NIJMEGEN (Dutch pronunciation: ( listen ); Nijmeegs : Nimwegen ), historically anglicized as NIMEGUEN, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland . It is situated on the Waal river , close to the German border. Nijmegen
Nijmegen
is the oldest city in the Netherlands, the first to be recognized as such in Roman times, and in 2005 celebrated 2,000 years of existence. The municipality is part of the " Stadsregio Arnhem-Nijmegen " (Arnhem- Nijmegen
Nijmegen
urban region (neighbouring city, 15 km (9 mi) north)), a metropolitan area with 736,107 inhabitants (2011)
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