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Latin Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c
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Uralic Languages
The Uralic languages
Uralic languages
(/jʊəˈrælɪk/; sometimes called Uralian languages /jʊəˈreɪliən/) form a language family of 38[2] languages spoken by approximately 25 million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages
Uralic languages
with the most native speakers are Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, which are the official languages of Hungary, Finland, and Estonia, respectively, and of the European Union
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Turkic Languages
The Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are a language family of at least thirty-five[2] documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of Eurasia
Eurasia
from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia
West Asia
all the way to North Asia
North Asia
(particularly in Siberia) and East Asia
East Asia
(including the Far East)
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Austronesian Languages
The Austronesian
Austronesian
languages (/ˌɔːstroʊˈniːʒən/) are a language family widely spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean. There are also a few speakers in continental Asia.[2] They are spoken by about 386 million people (4.9%). This makes it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers. Major Austronesian
Austronesian
languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family.[3] In 1706, the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland
Adriaan Reland
first observed similarities between the languages spoken in the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
and the Pacific Ocean.[4] In the 19th century, researchers (e.g
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Afroasiatic Languages
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic
Omotic
and Semitic. By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties
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Nilo-Saharan Languages
The Nilo- Saharan languages
Saharan languages
are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile
Nile
rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile
Nile
meet
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Niger–Congo Languages
The Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages.[1] It is generally considered to be the world's largest language family in terms of distinct languages,[2][3] ahead of Austronesian, although this is complicated by the ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language; the number of named Niger–Congo languages listed by Ethnologue
Ethnologue
is 1,540.[4] It is the third-largest language family in the world by number of native speakers, comprising around 700 million people as of 2015. Within Niger–Congo, the Bantu languages
Bantu languages
alone account for 350 million people (2015), or half the total Niger–Congo speaking population
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Caucasic Languages
West Caucasian   Circassian   Abkhaz   Ubykh (extinct)East Caucasian   Nakh   Avar-Andi & Tsezic   Dargin   Lezgic & Khinalug   LakThe North Caucasian languages, sometimes called simply Caucasic, are a pair of well established language families spoken in the Caucasus, chiefly in the north: the Northwest Caucasian family, also called Pontic, Abkhaz–Adyghe, Circassian, or West Caucasian; and the Northeast Caucasian family, also called Nakh–Dagestanian or East Caucasian. The Kartvelian languages
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ISO 15924
ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). Each script is given both a four-letter code and a numeric one.[1] Script is defined as "set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages".[1] Where possible the codes are derived from ISO 639-2 where the name of a script and the name of a language using the script are identical (example: Gujarātī ISO 639 guj, ISO 15924 Gujr). Preference is given to the 639-2 Bibliographical codes, which is different from the otherwise often preferred use of the Terminological codes.[1] 4-letter ISO 15924 codes are incorporated into the Language Subtag Registry for IETF language tags and so can be used in file formats that make use of such language tags
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Slavic Languages
The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East, West, and South, which together constitute more than twenty languages
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Baltic Languages
The Baltic languages
Baltic languages
belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Baltic languages
Baltic languages
are spoken by the Balts, mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. Scholars usually regard them as a single language family divided into two groups: Western Baltic (containing only extinct languages) and Eastern Baltic (containing two living languages, Lithuanian and Latvian)
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Celtic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Hieratic
Demotic   → Coptic   → Meroitic Byblos syllabarySister systems Cursive
Cursive
hieroglyphs[dubious – discuss]Direction Right-to-leftISO 15924 Egyh, 060 Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+13000–U+1342F (unified with Egyptian hieroglyphs)This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Hieratic
Hieratic
(English: /haɪərˈrætɪk/; Ancient Greek: ἱερατικά, translit. hieratika, lit. 'priestly') is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt. It developed alongside cursive hieroglyphs,[1] to which it is distinctly related
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Demotic (Egyptian)
Demotic (from Ancient Greek: δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian
Late Egyptian
and preceding Coptic. The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
to distinguish it from hieratic and hieroglyphic scripts
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