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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Romance Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Romansh Language
ROMANSH (also spelled ROMANSCH, RUMANTSCH, or ROMANCHE; Romansh: _ rumantsch_ (help ·info ), _rumàntsch_, _ romauntsch_ (help ·info ) or _ romontsch_ (help ·info )) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian and is used as the medium of instruction in schools in Romansh-speaking areas. Romansh has also been recognized as a national language of Switzerland
Switzerland
since 1938 and as an official language along with German , French and Italian since 1996. It is sometimes grouped with Ladin and Friulian as a Rhaeto-Romance language , though this is disputed. Romansh is a descendant of the spoken Latin
Latin
language of the Roman Empire , which by the 5th century AD replaced the Celtic and Raetic languages previously spoken in the area, although Romansh retains a small number of words from these languages
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Romanesco Dialect
ROMANESCO (Italian pronunciation: ) is a variety of regional Italian spoken in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
, especially in the core city . It is a Central Italian
Central Italian
dialect and is thus linguistically close to the Tuscan dialect and Standard Italian . There exist a few notable grammatical and idiomatic differences from Standard Italian. Rich in expressions and sayings, Romanesco is used for informal/colloquial communication by most of the natives of Rome, often with code-switching with the standard language
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Romanian Language
ROMANIAN (obsolete spellings RUMANIAN, ROUMANIAN; autonym: limba română ( listen ), "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language
Romance language
spoken by around 24-26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania
Romania
and Moldova
Moldova
, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It has official status in Romania
Romania
and the Republic of Moldova. It is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Romanian is a part of the Balkan-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin separated from the Western Romance during the 5th–8th centuries. To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called Daco-Romanian as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian , Megleno-Romanian , and Istro-Romanian
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Romani Language
Albania Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Colombia Finland France Germany Hungary Kosovo Macedonia Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Serbia Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-2 rom ISO 639-3 rom – inclusive code Individual codes: rmn – Balkan Romani rml – Baltic Romani rmc – Carpathian Romani rmf – Finnish Kalo rmo – Sinte Romani rmy – Vlax Romani rmw – Welsh-Romani GLOTTOLOG roma1329 THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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Colosseum
The COLOSSEUM or COLISEUM (/kɒləˈsiːəm/ _kol-ə-SEE-əm_ ), also known as the FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATRE (Latin: _Amphitheatrum Flavium_; Italian: _Anfiteatro Flavio_ or _Colosseo_ ), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy
. Built of concrete and sand, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum
Colosseum
is situated just east of the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
in AD 72, and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir Titus
Titus
. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian
Domitian
(81–96). These three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty , and the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name _(Flavius )_
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Latium
LATIUM ( Latin
Latin
: Lătĭŭm ) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome
Rome
was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Latium
Latium
was originally a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians. It was located on the left bank (east and south) of the River Tiber
Tiber
, extending northward to the River Anio (a left-bank tributary of the Tiber) and southeastward to the Pomptina Palus ( Pontine Marshes , now the Pontine Fields) as far south as the Circeian promontory . The right bank of the Tiber
Tiber
was occupied by the Etruscan city of Veii , and the other borders were occupied by Italic tribes
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Roman Kingdom
The ROMAN KINGDOM, or REGAL PERIOD, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome
Rome
and its territories. Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
began with the city's founding , traditionally dated to 753 BC with settlements around the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
along the river Tiber in Central Italy
Italy
, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC
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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: _RES PUBLICA ROMANA_; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracu
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Early Modern Europe
EARLY MODERN EUROPE is the period of European history
European history
between the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century
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Armenian Kingdom Of Cilicia
The ARMENIAN KINGDOM OF CILICIA ( Middle Armenian
Middle Armenian
: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն, Kilikio Hayoc’ T’agavorut’yun), also known as the CILICIAN ARMENIA (Armenian : Կիլիկյան Հայաստան, Kilikyan Hayastan), LESSER ARMENIA, or NEW ARMENIA, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia
Armenia
. Located outside of the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
and distinct from the Armenian Kingdom of antiquity , it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta . The kingdom had its origins in the principality founded c. 1080 by the Rubenid dynasty , an alleged offshoot of the larger Bagratid family , which at various times had held the thrones of Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia
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Lingua Franca
A _LINGUA FRANCA_ (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. _Lingua francas_ have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Vatican City
Coordinates : 41°54′N 12°27′E / 41.900°N 12.450°E / 41.900; 12.450 Vatican City State _Status Civitatis Vaticanae_ ( Latin ) _Stato della Città del Vaticano_ (Italian ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Inno e Marcia Pontificale _ (Italian ) " Pontifical Anthem and March" Location of Vatican City (green) in
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