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Languages Of Indonesia
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia . Most belong to the Austronesian language family , with a few Papuan languages also spoken. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as _Bahasa Indonesia_), a variant of Malay , which was used in the archipelago, borrowing heavily from local LANGUAGES OF INDONESIA such as Javanese, Sundanese and Minangkabu . The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak other languages , such as Javanese , as their first language. Most books printed in Indonesia are written in the Indonesian language. Since Indonesia recognises only a single official language, other languages are not recognised either at the national level or the regional level, thus making Javanese the most widely spoken language without official status , with Sundanese the second in the list (excluding Chinese dialects)
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Culture Of Indonesia
The CULTURE OF INDONESIA has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East , South Asia
South Asia
and the Middle East
Middle East
, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions , including Hinduism , Buddhism , Confucianism , Islam and Christianity , all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures. Examples of the fusion of Islam with Hindu
Hindu
in Javanese Abangan belief, the fusion of Hinduism, Buddhism and animism in Bodha , and the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan ; others could be cited. Balinese dances have stories about ancient Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms , while Islamic art forms and architecture are present in Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau and Aceh regions. Traditional art, music and sport are combined in a martial art form called Pencak Silat . The Western world has influenced Indonesia
Indonesia
in science, technology and modern entertainment such as television shows, film and music, as well as political system and issues
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History Of Indonesia
The HISTORY OF INDONESIA has been shaped by its geographic position, its natural resources, a series of human migrations and contacts, wars and conquests, as well as by trade, economics and politics. Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,000 to 18 000 islands (8,844 named and 922 permanently inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia
Asia
. The country's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade; trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. The area of Indonesia
Indonesia
is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures , ethnicities , and languages . The archipelago's landforms and climate significantly influenced agriculture and trade, and the formation of states. The boundaries of the state of Indonesia
Indonesia
represent the 20th century borders of the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus and his tools, popularly known as the " Java Man ", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by at least 1.5 million years ago. Austronesian people , who form the majority of the modern population, are thought to have originally been from Taiwan
Taiwan
and arrived in Indonesia
Indonesia
around 2000 BCE
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Ethnic Groups In Indonesia
There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia . 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry. The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up about 40% of the total population. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago because of the transmigration program . The Sundanese , Malay , and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua , have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number, particularly in Papua , speak Papuan languages . The Tionghoa population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census. Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects , most notably Hokkien and Hakka . The classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some cases unclear due to migrations, cultural and linguistic influences; for example some may consider Bantenese and Cirebonese to be members of the Javanese people ; however, some others argue that they are different ethnic groups altogether since they have their own distinct dialects
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Traditions Of Indonesia
TRADITIONS OF INDONESIA are traditions , beliefs , values , and customs that belong within the culture of Indonesian people . Indonesia is a vast country of sprawling archipelago with a diverse demographic range of over 300 ethnic groups , and speaking more than 700 living languages . With 202.9 million Muslim s (88.2% of the total population as of 2009), Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world. Indonesia also has significant numbers of Christians . Protestant and Catholics population are the majority, with other Christian groups existing as well. The majority of Hindu demographics in Indonesia living in the island of Bali
Bali
. Buddhist Indonesian are located throughout the country, and are ethnically identified as Chinese Indonesians . CONTENTS * 1 Etiquette * 2 Social gathering * 2.1 Arisan * 2.2 Selametan * 2.3 Harvest festival * 3 References ETIQUETTE Main article: Etiquette in Indonesia In Indonesia, etiquette – methods of showing respect (Indonesian : hormat ) – has been considered as one of the key factors in social interactions. Etiquette varies greatly depending on one's status relative to the person being interacted with
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Etiquette In Indonesia
Various codes of ETIQUETTE IN INDONESIA govern the expectations of social behavior in the country and are considered very important. Etiquette demonstrates respect, and is considered one of the key factor in social interactions. Like many social cultures, etiquette varies greatly depending on one's status relative to the person in question. Some conventions may be very regional practices, and thus may not exist in all regions of Indonesia. The following are generally accepted contemporary customs in Indonesia. CONTENTS * 1 Cultural overview * 2 Common values and practices * 2.1 Smile
Smile
* 2.2 Communality * 2.3 Hierarchy and honoring the elder * 2.4 Indirectness * 2.5 Saving face * 3 Everyday Manners * 3.1 Greetings * 3.2 Using hands * 3.3 Table manner * 4 Dress sense * 4.1 Business * 4.2 Formal events * 4.3 Visiting sacred sites * 5 References * 5.1 Bibliography CULTURAL OVERVIEW Indonesia
Indonesia
is a vast tropical country of sprawling archipelago with extremely diverse culture and demographic make-up with over 300 ethnic groups , and speaking more than 700 living languages . Indonesia
Indonesia
has the largest Muslim population in the world
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Mythology Of Indonesia
The MYTHOLOGY OF INDONESIA is very diverse, the Indonesian people consisting of hundreds of ethnic groups , each with their own myths and legends that explain the origin of their people, the tales of their ancestors and the demons or deities in their belief systems. The tendency to syncretize by overlying older traditions with newer foreign ideas has occurred. For example, the older ancestral mythology might be merged with foreign mythology, such as Hindu , Islam , or Christian biblical mythology . CONTENTS * 1 Foreign influences * 2 Creation myth * 2.1 Dayak * 2.2 Batak * 2.3 Toraja
Toraja
* 2.4 Asmat * 2.5 Sunda * 2.6 Java
Java
* 2.7 Minangkabau * 2.8 Malay * 3 Deities * 4 Demons * 5 References * 6 External links FOREIGN INFLUENCESSome native Indonesian ethnic groups that were isolated from the rest of the world until recent centuries have their own native myths and gods. These native mythologies are relatively free from foreign influences, such as Torajans , Nias , Bataks , Dayaks and Papuans. By contrast, Javanese , Balinese , and to some degree Sundanese were influenced by Hindu -Buddhist Indian mythology as early as the 1st century CE. Hindu gods
Hindu gods
, legends and epics such as Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata were adopted and adapted into a uniquely local form
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Folklore Of Indonesia
FOLKLORE OF INDONESIA is known in Indonesian as dongeng (lit. "tale") or cerita rakyat (literally "people's story" or "folklore"), refer to any folklore found in Indonesia
Indonesia
. Its origins are probably an oral culture , with a range of stories of heroes associated with wayang and other forms of theatre, transmitted outside of a written culture. Folklore in Indonesia
Indonesia
are closely connected with mythology . CONTENTS * 1 Themes * 2 Forms * 3 List of Indonesian folklores * 3.1 Tales * 3.2 Legends * 3.3 Epic * 3.4 Fable * 3.5 Myth * 4 Further reading (in English) * 5 Further reading (In Indonesian) * 6 External links THEMESIndonesian folklore reflect the diverse culture of Indonesia
Indonesia
as well as the diversity of ethnic groups in Indonesia
Indonesia
. Many ethnic groups have their collection of tales and folklores being told for generations. The stories usually told to children as some kind of bed-time story, and have pedagogical value on kindness, benevolence, modesty, honesty, bravery, patience, persistence, virtue and morality . For example, the popular theme is "the truth is always prevail, the evil will always defeated". While most of Indonesian children folklore stories have happy ending plots and a 'happily ever after' theme, some employ tragedy and have rather sad endings
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Cuisine Of Indonesia
INDONESIAN CUISINE is one of the most vibrant and colourful cuisines in the world, full of intense flavour. It is diverse, in part because Indonesia
Indonesia
is composed of approximately 6,000 populated islands of the total 17,508 in the world's largest archipelago, with more than 300 ethnic groups calling Indonesia
Indonesia
home. Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences. Indonesia has around 5,350 traditional recipes, with 30 of them considered the most important. Indonesia's cuisine may include rice, noodle and soup dishes in modest local eateries to street-side snacks and top-dollar plates. In 2011, Indonesian cuisine began to gain worldwide recognition, with three of its popular dishes make it to the list of 'World's 50 Most Delicious Foods (Readers' Pick)', a worldwide online poll by 35,000 people held by CNN International
CNN International
. Rendang top the list as the number one, followed closely by nasi goreng in number two, and satay in number fourteen. Indonesian cuisine varies greatly by region and has many different influences. Sumatran cuisine, for example, often has Middle Eastern and Indian influences, featuring curried meat and vegetables such as gulai and curry , while Javanese cuisine is mostly indigenous, with some hint of Chinese influence
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Religion In Indonesia
Religion
Religion
in Indonesia
Indonesia
(2010) Islam (87.2%) Christianity (9.9%) Hinduism (1.7%) Buddhism (0.7%) Confucianism and others (0.2%) Part of a series on the CULTURE OF INDONESIA HISTORY PEOPLE LANGUAGES Traditions Etiquette in Indonesia
Etiquette in Indonesia
Mythology and folklore * Mythology * folklore CUISINE Religion
Religion
* Islam * Ahmadiyya * Christianity * Catholicism * Protestantism * Hinduism * Buddhism * Confucianism * Judaism Art
Art
* Indonesian art * Architecture of Indonesia
Architecture of Indonesia
LITERATURE Music and performing arts * Music * Performing arts Media * Television * Cinema SPORT Monuments * World Heritage Sites Symbols * Flag * Coat of arms * * Indonesia
Indonesia
portal * v * t * e Indonesia
Indonesia
is constitutionally a secular state and the first principle of Indonesia
Indonesia
's philosophical foundation, Pancasila , is "belief in the one and only God
God
"
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Islam In Indonesia
Indonesia is constitutionally a secular state (but the government officially recognises only six formal religions), with ISLAM being the dominant religion in the country. Indonesia also has a larger Muslim population than any other country in the world, with approximately 202.9 million identifying themselves as Muslim (87.2% of Indonesia's total population in 2011). Based on demographic statistics, 99% of Indonesian Muslims mainly follow the Shafi\'i school of Sunni jurisprudence , although when asked, 56% does not adhere to any specific denomination. There are around one million Shias (0.5%), who are concentrated around Jakarta , and about 400,000 Ahmadi Muslims (0.2%). In general, Muslims in Indonesia can be categorised in terms of two orientations: "modernists" who closely adhere to orthodox theology while embracing modern learning, and "traditionalists," who tend to follow the interpretations of local religious leaders and religious teachers at Islamic boarding schools (pesantren )
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Ahmadiyya In Indonesia
AHMADIYYA (Indonesian : Ahmadiyah) is an Islamic movement in Indonesia
Indonesia
. The earliest history of the Community in Indonesia
Indonesia
dates back to the early days of the Second Caliph , when during the summer of 1925, roughly two decades prior to the Indonesian revolution , a missionary of the Community, Rahmat Ali, stepped on Indonesia's largest island, Sumatra
Sumatra
, and established the movement with 13 devotees in Tapaktuan , in the province of Aceh
Aceh
. The Community has an influential history in Indonesia's religious development, yet in the modern times it has faced increasing intolerance from religious establishments in the country and physical hostilities from radical Muslim groups. The Association of Religion Data Archives estimates around 400,000 Ahmadi Muslims, spread over 542 branches across the country. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 First contact * 1.2 Establishment * 1.3 Early development * 1.4 Influence * 2 Demographics * 3 Modern status * 3.1 Rise of intolerance * 3.2 Violence against Ahmadis * 3.3 Forced segregation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORYFIRST CONTACT The Three Pioneers, in their later years. From left to right: Ahmad Nurdin, Abubakar Ayub, Zaini Dahlan
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Christianity In Indonesia
CHRISTIANITY is Indonesia
Indonesia
's second-largest religion, after Islam . Indonesia
Indonesia
also has the second largest Christian population in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
after the Philippines
Philippines
, the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia, and the 4th largest Christian in Asia after the Philippines, India
India
and China
China
. Indonesia's 24 million Christians constitute 10% of the country's population, with 7% Protestant (17 million) and 3% Catholic (7 million)
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Roman Catholicism In Indonesia
The CATHOLIC CHURCH IN INDONESIA (Indonesian : Gereja Katolik di Indonesia) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church , under the spiritual leadership of the pope in Rome
Rome
. Catholicism is one of the six approved religions in Indonesia
Indonesia
, the others being Islam , Protestantism , Hinduism , Buddhism , and Confucianism . According to official figures, Catholics made up 2.9% percent of the population in 2010. The number of the Catholics is therefore nearly 7.5 million. Indonesia
Indonesia
is primarily Muslim, but Catholicism is the dominant faith in certain areas of the country. The Church is organised into ten archdioceses and 27 dioceses, all dioceses are member of Indonesian Catholic Bishops Conference (KWI) and is led by Archbishop
Archbishop
Ignatius Suharyo Hardjoatmodjo . There are several active Roman Catholic religious institutes , including the Jesuits , the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart
Missionaries of the Sacred Heart
(MSC) and the SVD . Catholicism in Indonesia
Indonesia
began with the arrival of the Portuguese in search of the Spice Islands in the 16th century. Today, East Nusa Tenggara is the only province in Indonesia
Indonesia
where Roman Catholicism is the majority, adhered by around 55% of East Nusa Tenggara population
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Protestants In Indonesia
PROTESTANTISM is one of the six approved religions in the country, the others being Islam , Roman Catholicism , Hinduism , Buddhism , and Confucianism . It constitutes the bulk of Christianity in Indonesia , which is the second largest religion in the country after Islam. According to CIA
CIA
statistic, in 2000 5.7% of the population of Indonesia were Protestant . A nationwide census of 2010 noted almost 7% (16,530,000) of the population considering themselves Protestant, largest in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. CONTENTS * 1 History of Protestantism in Indonesia * 2 Demographics of Protestantism in Indonesia * 3 Reformed denominations created by Dutch Reformed missionaries * 3.1 Members of the International Conference of Reformed Churches * 3.2 Members of World Reformed Fellowship * 4 Indonesian Protestant Churches affiliated with Lutheranism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY OF PROTESTANTISM IN INDONESIAProtestantism arrived in Indonesia during the Dutch East Indies colonization. By the mid-1700s a significant Lutheran
Lutheran
presence was found in Jakarta
Jakarta
, with a Lutheran
Lutheran
church built by the Lutheran Governor General Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff in 1749
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Hinduism In Indonesia
HINDUISM IN INDONESIA is practised by 1.7% of the total population, and by 83.5% of the population in Bali as of the 2010 census. Hinduism is one of the six official religions of Indonesia. In 2010, there were an estimated total of over 4 million Hindus in Indonesia according to Indonesian census. The Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia disputed the census methodology, and estimated 18 million Hindus lived in Indonesia in 2005. In 2010, the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia estimated that about 10 million Hindus lived on Indonesian islands, in contrast to the Indonesian official decadal census of over 4 million. Nevertheless as of 2017, Indonesia has the largest number of Hindus living in the region and outside of South Asia