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Languages Of Indonesia
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.[1] Most belong to the Austronesian language family, with a few Papuan languages
Papuan languages
also spoken. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as bahasa Indonesia), a variant of Malay,[2] which was used in the archipelago, borrowing heavily from local languages of Indonesia
Indonesia
such as Javanese, Sundanese and Minangkabau
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Culture Of Indonesia
The culture of Indonesia
Indonesia
has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East, South Asia
South Asia
and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam
Islam
and Christianity, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures. Examples of the fusion of Islam
Islam
with Hindu
Hindu
in Javanese Abangan
Abangan
belief, the fusion of Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and animism in Bodha, and the fusion of Hinduism
Hinduism
and animism in Kaharingan; others could be cited
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Sundanese Language
Sundanese /sʌndəˈniːz/[4] (Basa Sunda /basa sʊnda/, in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language
Malayo-Polynesian language
spoken by the Sundanese. It has approximately 39 million native speakers in the western third of Java; they represent about 15% of the Indonesia's total population.Contents1 Dialects 2 Writing 3 Phonology 4 Register 5 Basic grammar5.1 Root word5.1.1 Root verb 5.1.2 Plural form5.2 Active form 5.3 Negation 5.4 Question 5.5 Passive form 5.6 Adjectives 5.7 Prepositions5.7.1 Place 5.7.2 Time 5.7.3 Miscellaneous6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksDialects[edit] Sundanese appears to be most closely related to Madurese and Malay, and more distantly related to Javanese
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National Symbols Of Indonesia
National symbols of Indonesia
Indonesia
are symbols that represent Republic of Indonesia. It can represent Indonesia
Indonesia
as a nation, Indonesian people, culture, arts, and its biodiversity. The official symbols of Indonesia are officially recognise symbols that represent Indonesia
Indonesia
and enforced through Indonesian laws
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Flag Of Indonesia
The Flag of Indonesia
Indonesia
is a simple bicolour with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3.[1] It was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on 17 August 1945 in Pegangsaan Timur street in Jakarta, and again when the Dutch formally transferred sovereignty on 17 August 1950. The design of the flag has remained unchanged since. The flag of Indonesia
Indonesia
is graphically identical to the Flag of Monaco, with a slight difference only in the ratio of its dimensions.[2] The Naval Jack
Naval Jack
of Indonesia
Indonesia
is reserved for sole use by the Indonesian Navy. It flies from the mast of every active Indonesian war ship.[3] The design of the jack is described as nine alternating stripes of red and white
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Coat Of Arms Of Indonesia
The national emblem of Indonesia
Indonesia
is called Garuda
Garuda
Pancasila.[1] The main part of Indonesian national emblem is the Garuda
Garuda
with a heraldic shield on its chest and a scroll gripped by its legs. The shield's five emblems represent Pancasila, the five principles of Indonesia's national ideology
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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)FlagNational emblemMotto:  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bhinneka Tunggal

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Austronesian Languages
The Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar
Madagascar
and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.[2] Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are spoken by about 386 million people (4.9%), making it the fourth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
(46.3%), the Sino-Tibetan languages (20.4%), and the Niger-Congo languages
Niger-Congo languages
(6.9%). Major Austronesian
Austronesian
languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog)
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Papuan Languages
The Papuan languages
Papuan languages
are the non- Austronesian
Austronesian
and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.[1] It is a strictly geographical grouping, and does not imply a genetic relationship. The concept of Papuan peoples
Papuan peoples
as distinct from Melanesians
Melanesians
was first suggested and named by Sidney Herbert Ray
Sidney Herbert Ray
in 1892.Contents1 Languages 2 Greenberg's classification 3 Wurm's classification 4 Ross's classification4.1 Papuan families proposed by Ross 4.2 Language isolates 4.3 Other5 Usher's classification 6 External relations 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 General references9 External linksLanguages[edit] New Guinea
New Guinea
is one of the most linguistically diverse regions in the world
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Indonesian Language
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
[baˈhasa indoneˈsia]) is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago
Indonesian archipelago
for centuries. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the fourth most populous nation in the world
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Malay Language
Latin (Malay alphabet) Arabic script
Arabic script
(Jawi alphabet)[3] Thai alphabet
Thai alphabet
(in Thailand) Malay Braille Historically Pallava alphabet, Kawi alphabet, Rencong alphabetSigned formsManually Coded Malay Sistem Isyarat Bahasa IndonesiaOfficial status
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Javanese Language
Javanese /dʒɑːvəˈniːz/[3] (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ dʒɔwɔ]) (colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [tjɔrɔ dʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people
Javanese people
from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers in the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people[4] (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia). Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese
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Minangkabau Language
Minangkabau (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh
Aceh
Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu
Bengkulu
and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia
Indonesia
by migrated Minangkabau.[5] The language is also a lingua franca along the western coastal region of the province of North Sumatra, and is even used in parts of Aceh, where the language is called Aneuk Jamee. It is also spoken in some parts of Malaysia, especially Negeri Sembilan. Due to great grammatical similarities between the Minangkabau language and Malay, there is some controversy regarding the relationship between the two
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Sport In Indonesia
Sports in Indonesia
Indonesia
are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect. Some popular sports in Indonesia
Indonesia
are badminton, football, and the native Indonesian martial art Pencak Silat.[1] Badminton
Badminton
is arguably Indonesia's most successful sport. Indonesia
Indonesia
has won gold medals in badminton in every Olympic Games
Olympic Games
since the sport was first introduced to the Olympics in 1992 except in 2012 Summer Olympics. Indonesia
Indonesia
is regularly a participating in Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and Sudirman Cup
Sudirman Cup
Badminton
Badminton
championships. Indonesia
Indonesia
is regularly participating in regional multi-events sport, such as Southeast Asian Games, Asian Games, and Olympic Games
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Multilingual
Multilingualism
Multilingualism
is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.[1] More than half of all Europeans
Europeans
claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue;[2] nevertheless, many of these are monoscriptual. Multilingualism
Multilingualism
is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness.[3] Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals' exposure to multiple languages is becoming increasingly frequent, thereby promoting a need to acquire additional languages. People who speak several languages are also called polyglots.[4] Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language (L1)
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