HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
[...More...]

"Language Family" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

List Of Language Families
This set of lists of language families also includes language isolates, unclassified languages and other types. CONTENTS* 1 Major language families * 1.1 By number of languages * 2 Language families
Language families
* 3 Language isolates * 3.1 Central for example Lyle Campbell counts 27 Otomanguean languages, although he, Ethnologue
Ethnologue
and Glottolog disagree as to which languages belong in the family. LANGUAGE FAMILIES See also: Language family
Language family
and List of languages by number of native speakers In the following, each bullet item is a known or suspected language family. Phyla with historically wide geographical distributions but comparatively few current-day speakers include Eskimo–Aleut , Na-Dené , Algic , Quechuan and Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan

[...More...]

"List Of Language Families" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Language
LANGUAGE is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication , particularly the human ability to do so, and A LANGUAGE is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics . Questions concerning the philosophy of language , such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated since Gorgias and Plato in Ancient Greece . Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky . Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects
[...More...]

"Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Genetic (linguistics)
In linguistics , GENETIC RELATIONSHIP is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family . The term GENEALOGICAL RELATIONSHIP is sometimes used to avoid confusion with the unrelated use of the term in biological genetics . Languages that possess genetic ties with one another belong to the same linguistic grouping, known as a language family . These ties are established through use of the comparative method of linguistic analysis. Two languages are considered to be genetically related if one is descended from the other or if both are descended from a common ancestor. For example, Italian is descended from Latin
Latin
. Italian and Latin
Latin
are therefore said to be genetically related. Spanish is also descended from Latin. Therefore, Spanish and Italian are genetically related
[...More...]

"Genetic (linguistics)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Proto-language
A PROTO-LANGUAGE in the tree model of historical linguistics is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested , from which a number of attested, or documented, known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, or slow modification of the proto-language into languages that form a language family . In the strict sense, a proto-language is the latest common ancestor of a language family, immediately before the start of the family's divergence into the attested daughter languages . It is therefore equivalent with the ancestral language or parental language of a language family. Moreover, a group of idioms (such as a dialect cluster ) which are not considered separate languages (for whichever reasons) can also be described as descending from a unitary proto-language. Occasionally, the German term Ursprache (from Ur- "primordial" and Sprache "language", pronounced ) is used instead. CONTENTS * 1 Definition and verification * 2 Proto-X vs
[...More...]

"Proto-language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Tree Model
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
[...More...]

"Tree Model" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Historical Linguistics
HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS, also called DIACHRONIC LINGUISTICS, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: * to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages * to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and to determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics ) * to develop general theories about how and why language changes * to describe the history of speech communities * to study the history of words, i.e
[...More...]

"Historical Linguistics" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Family Tree
A FAMILY TREE, or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure . The more detailed family trees used in medicine and social work are known as genograms . CONTENTS* 1 Family
Family
history representations * 1.1 Fan chart * 2 Graph theory * 3 Notable examples * 4 Other uses * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links FAMILY HISTORY REPRESENTATIONSGenealogical data can be represented in several formats, for example as a pedigree or ANCESTRY CHART. Family
Family
trees are often presented with the oldest generations at the top and the newer generations at the bottom. An ancestry chart, which is a tree showing the ancestors of an individual, will more closely resemble a tree in shape, being wider at the top than the bottom. In some ancestry charts, an individual appears on the left and his or her ancestors appear to the right
[...More...]

"Family Tree" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Phylogenetic Tree
A PHYLOGENETIC TREE or EVOLUTIONARY TREE is a branching diagram or "tree " showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their PHYLOGENY—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. The taxa joined together in the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestor . Phylogenetic trees are central to the field of phylogenetics . In a _rooted_ phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the inferred most recent common ancestor of the descendants, and the edge lengths in some trees may be interpreted as time estimates. Each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units, as they cannot be directly observed. Trees are useful in fields of biology such as bioinformatics , systematics , and phylogenetic comparative methods
[...More...]

"Phylogenetic Tree" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
[...More...]

"Taxonomy (biology)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Dialect
The term DIALECT (from Latin _dialectus_, _dialectos_, from the Ancient Greek word διάλεκτος, _diálektos_, "discourse", from διά, _diá_, "through" and λέγω, _légō_, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena: * One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often mutually intelligible , especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum . The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class or ethnicity
[...More...]

"Dialect" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Ethnologue
_ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD_ is a commercial publication about the living languages of the world, first issued in 1951. As of 2017, it contains web-based information about 7,099 languages in its 20th edition, including the number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliations, autonym , availability of the Bible
Bible
in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, and an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS)
[...More...]

"Ethnologue" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Language Death
In linguistics , LANGUAGE DEATH (also LANGUAGE EXTINCTION (the language is no longer spoken) or LINGUICIDE (death of a language from natural or political causes), and rarely also GLOTTOPHAGY (absorption or replacement of minor language with major language)) occurs when a language loses its last native speaker . Language
Language
death is a process that affects speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers possess of a given language variety is decreased, eventually resulting in no native or fluent speakers of the variety. Language
Language
death may affect any language idiom, including dialects . Language
Language
death should not be confused with language attrition (also called language loss), which describes the loss of proficiency in a first language of an individual
[...More...]

"Language Death" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Extinct Language
An EXTINCT LANGUAGE is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if it has no living descendants . In contrast, a _dead language_ is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin
Latin
. In the modern period, language death has typically resulted from the process of cultural assimilation leading to language shift , and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign _lingua franca _. A language that currently has living native speakers is called a modern language . As of the 2000s, a total of roughly 7,000 natively spoken languages existed worldwide. Most of these are minor languages in danger of extinction; one estimate published in 2004 expected that some 90% of the currently spoken languages will have become extinct by 2050
[...More...]

"Extinct Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Comparative Linguistics
COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS (originally COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY ) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness. Genetic relatedness implies a common origin or proto-language and comparative linguistics aims to construct language families , to reconstruct proto-languages and specify the changes that have resulted in the documented languages. To maintain a clear distinction between attested and reconstructed forms, comparative linguists prefix an asterisk to any form that is not found in surviving texts. A number of methods for carrying out language classification have been developed, ranging from simple inspection to computerised hypothesis testing. Such methods have gone through a long process of development
[...More...]

"Comparative Linguistics" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Sister Language
In historical linguistics , SISTER LANGUAGES, also known as SIBLING LANGUAGES or BROTHER LANGUAGES are cognate languages; that is, languages that descend from a common ancestral language, the so-called proto-language . Every language in an established language family is a sister to the others. A commonly given example is the Romance languages
Romance languages
, each one of which derives from Latin
Latin
. Italian and French have about 89% lexical overlap , meaning the words share 89 percent of the same characteristics and root origins. Both Italian and French have a huge number of similar words. Similarly, Spanish and Portuguese have about 89% lexical overlap, so many words are shared or similar between those two languages (see also cognates ). Spanish and Romanian\'s overlap is lower, at about 67%
[...More...]

"Sister Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.