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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Proto-Germanic
PROTO-GERMANIC (abbreviated PGMC; German Urgermanisch; also called COMMON GERMANIC, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era : West Germanic , East Germanic and North Germanic , which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English ), which arose from West Germanic dialects which remained in continued contact with North Germanic. A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of Grimm\'s law , a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and its gradual divergence into a separate language
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Language Convergence
LANGUAGE CONVERGENCE is a type of linguistic change in which languages come to structurally resemble one another as a result of prolonged language contact and mutual interference. In contrast to other contact-induced language changes like creolization or the formation of mixed languages, convergence refers to a mutual process that results in changes in all the languages involved. Linguists use the term to describe changes in the linguistic patterns of the languages in contact rather than alterations of isolated lexical items. CONTENTS * 1 Contexts * 2 Mechanisms * 3 Results * 4 Difficulties * 5 Examples * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links CONTEXTS Language convergence occurs in geographic areas with two or more unrelated languages in contact, resulting in groups of languages with similar linguistic features that were not inherited from each language's proto-language
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Classification Of The Japonic Languages
The CLASSIFICATION OF THE JAPONIC LANGUAGES (Japanese and the Ryukyuan languages ) is unclear. Linguists traditionally consider the Japonic languages to belong to an independent family; indeed, until the classification of Ryukyuan as separate languages within a Japonic family rather than as dialects of Japanese, Japanese was considered a language isolate . Among more distant connections, the possibility of a genetic relationship to the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
(Koguryŏ) languages, or perhaps to Kara (Gaya) , has the most currency. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
itself may be related to Korean , and a Japonic–Korean grouping is widely considered plausible
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Language Shift
LANGUAGE SHIFT, also known as LANGUAGE TRANSFER or LANGUAGE REPLACEMENT or LANGUAGE ASSIMILATION, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often, languages that are perceived to be higher status stabilise or spread at the expense of other languages that are perceived by their own speakers to be lower-status. An example is the shift from Gaulish
Gaulish
to Latin
Latin
that occurred in what is now France
France
during the time of the Roman Empire
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Monophyly
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
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Attested Language
In linguistics , ATTESTED LANGUAGES are languages (living or dead ) that have been documented, and for which the evidence has survived to the present day. Evidence may be recordings, transcriptions, literature, or inscriptions . In contrast, UNATTESTED LANGUAGES may be names of purported languages for which no direct evidence exists, languages for which all evidence has been lost, or hypothetical proto-languages proposed in linguistic reconstruction . Within an attested language, particular word forms which are directly known to have been used – because they appear in the literature, inscriptions or documented speech – are called ATTESTED FORMS. These contrast with UNATTESTED FORMS, which are reconstructions, hypothesised to have been used based on indirect evidence (such as etymological patterns). In linguistic texts, unattested forms are commonly marked with a preceding asterisk (*)
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Dialect Continuum
A DIALECT CONTINUUM or DIALECT CHAIN is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that each differs only slightly from its neighbors, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible . That happens, for example, across large parts of India or the Maghreb
Maghreb
. Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal
Portugal
, southern Belgium
Belgium
and southern Italy , and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
. Leonard Bloomfield used the name DIALECT AREA. Charles F. Hockett used the term L-COMPLEX. It is analogous to a ring species in evolutionary biology
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Mutual Intelligibility
In linguistics , MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. It is sometimes used as an important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic factors are often also used. Intelligibility between languages can be asymmetric, with speakers of one understanding more of the other than speakers of the other understanding the first. When it is relatively symmetric, it is characterized as "mutual". It exists in differing degrees among many related or geographically proximate languages of the world, often in the context of a dialect continuum
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Grammatical Modifier
In grammar , a MODIFIER is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure. A modifier is so called because it is said to modify (change the meaning of) another element in the structure, on which it is dependent. Typically the modifier can be removed without affecting the grammar of the sentence. For example, in the English sentence This is a red ball, the adjective red is a modifier, modifying the noun ball. Removal of the modifier would leave This is a ball, which is grammatically correct and equivalent in structure to the original sentence. Other terms used with a similar meaning are qualifier (the word qualify may be used in the same way as modify in this context), attribute, and adjunct . These concepts are often distinguished from complements and arguments , which may also be considered dependent on another element, but are considered an indispensable part of the structure
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Taxonomy (general)
TAXONOMY is the practice and science of classification. The word is also used as a count noun : A TAXONOMY, or TAXONOMIC SCHEME, is a particular classification . The word finds its roots in the Greek language τάξις, taxis (meaning 'order', 'arrangement') and νόμος, nomos ('law' or 'science'). Originally, taxonomy referred only to the classification of organisms or a particular classification of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a classification of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a classification. Taxonomy is different from meronomy which is dealing with the classification of parts of a whole. Many taxonomies have a hierarchical structure, but this is not a requirement. Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as TAXA (singular taxon )
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Speech Community
A SPEECH COMMUNITY is a group of people who share a set of linguistic norms and expectations with regard to how their language should be used. Exactly how to define speech community is debated in the literature. Definitions of speech community tend to involve varying degrees of emphasis on the following: * Shared community membership * Shared linguistic communicationEarly definitions have tended to see speech communities as bounded and localized groups of people who live together and come to share the same linguistic norms because they belong to the same local community. It has also been assumed that within a community a homogeneous set of norms should exist. These assumptions have been challenged by later scholarship that has demonstrated that individuals generally participate in various speech communities simultaneously and at different times in their lives. Each speech community has different norms that they tend to share only partially
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Loanword
A LOANWORD (also LOAN WORD or LOAN-WORD) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation . This is in contrast to cognates , which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and calques , which involve translation
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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