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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Stimulus (physiology)
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. The ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli is called sensitivity. When a stimulus is applied to a sensory receptor, it normally elicits or influences a reflex via stimulus transduction. These sensory receptors can receive information from outside the body, as in touch receptors found in the skin or light receptors in the eye, as well as from inside the body, as in chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors. An internal stimulus is often the first component of a homeostatic control system. External stimuli are capable of producing systemic responses throughout the body, as in the fight-or-flight response
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Modality (semiotics)
In semiotics, a modality is a particular way in which information is to be encoded for presentation to humans, i.e. to the type of sign and to the status of reality ascribed to or claimed by a sign, text, or genre. It is more closely associated with the semiotics of Charles Peirce (1839–1914) than Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
(1857–1913) because meaning is conceived as an effect of a set of signs
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Touch
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system. The somatosensory system is a complex system of sensory neurons and pathways that responds to changes at the surface or inside the body. The axons (as afferent nerve fibers), of sensory neurons connect with, or respond to, various receptor cells. These sensory receptor cells are activated by different stimuli such as heat and nociception, giving a functional name to the responding sensory neuron, such as a thermoreceptor which carries information about temperature changes. Other types include mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and nociceptors and they send signals along a sensory nerve to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other sensory neurons and then relayed to the brain for further processing. Sensory receptors are found all over the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system.Touch is a crucial means of receiving information
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Encoding (semiotics)
Encoding, in semiotics, is the process of creating a message for transmission by an addresser to an addressee. The complementary process – interpreting a message received from an addresser – is called decoding. Discussion[edit] The process of message exchanges, or semiosis, is a key characteristic of human life depending on rule-governed and learned codes that, for the most part, unconsciously guide the communication of meaning between individuals. These interpretive frameworks or linking grids were termed "myths" by Roland Barthes
Roland Barthes
(1915–1980) and pervade all aspects of culture from personal conversation to the mass media's output (for code exchange through the mass media, see Americanism). Early theorists like Saussure (1857–1913) proposed the theory that when the addresser wishes to transmit a message to an addressee, the intended meaning must be converted into content so that it can be delivered
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Productivity (linguistics)
In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation. It compares grammatical processes that are in frequent use to less frequently used ones that tend towards lexicalization. Generally the test of productivity concerns identifying which grammatical forms would be used in the coining of new words: these will tend to only be converted to other forms using productive processes.Contents1 Examples in English 2 Significance 3 English and productive forms 4 Examples in other languages 5 See also 6 References 7 NotesExamples in English[edit] In standard English, the formation of preterite and past participle forms of verbs by means of ablaut (for example, sing–sang–sung) is no longer considered productive. Newly coined verbs in English overwhelmingly use the 'weak' (regular) ending -ed for the past tense and past participle (for example, spammed, e-mailed)
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Gorgias
Gorgias
Gorgias
(/ˈɡɔːrdʒiəs/;[1] Greek: Γοργίας, Ancient Greek: [ɡorɡíaːs]; c. 485 – c. 380 BC[2]) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini
Leontini
in Sicily. Along with Protagoras, he forms the first generation of Sophists. Several doxographers report that he was a pupil of Empedocles, although he would only have been a few years younger. "Like other Sophists, he was an itinerant that practiced in various cities and giving public exhibitions of his skill at the great pan-Hellenic centers of Olympia and Delphi, and charged fees for his instruction and performances
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Hominin
?Pan AustralopithecinaHomo †Australopithecus †Kenyanthropus †Paranthropus †Ardipithecus?†Sahelanthropus ?†Orrorin ?†Graecopithecus[1] (? =more field data needed) († =extinct =fossil)The Hominini
Hominini
("hominins") form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae
Homininae
("hominines"). Hominini
Hominini
includes genus Homo
Homo
(humans), but excludes genus Gorilla
Gorilla
(gorillas). There is at present (as of 2018[update]) no consensus on whether it should include genus Pan (the chimpanzees), the question being closely tied to the complex speciation process connecting humans and chimpanzees and the development of bipedalism in proto-humans. The tribe was originally introduced by Gray (1824), long before any details on the speciation of Pan and Homo
Homo
were known
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Ancient Greece
History
History
of the world · Ancient maritime history Protohistory · Axial Age · Iron Age Historiography · Ancient literature Ancient warfare · Cradle of civilization Category PortalFollowed by Post-classical historyvte Ancient Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ἑλλάς, translit. Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600)
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Semiosis
Semiosis (from the Greek: σημείωσις, sēmeíōsis, a derivation of the verb σημειῶ, sēmeiô, "to mark") is any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including the production of meaning. Briefly – semiosis is sign process. The term was introduced by Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce
(1839–1914) to describe a process that interprets signs as referring to their objects, as described in his theory of sign relations, or semiotics. Semiosis is triadic and cyclic[citation needed]
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Braille
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Braille" dated 2006-09-06, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Braille
Braille
(/breɪl/; French: [bʁaj]) is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired. It is traditionally written with embossed paper. Braille
Braille
users can read computer screens and other electronic supports thanks to refreshable braille displays. They can write braille with the original slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer, such as a portable braille notetaker or computer that prints with a braille embosser. Braille
Braille
is named after its creator, Louis Braille, a Frenchman who lost his sight as a result of a childhood accident. In 1824, at the age of fifteen, he developed a code for the French alphabet
French alphabet
as an improvement on night writing
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Emotion
Emotion
Emotion
is any conscious experience[1][2][3] characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.[4][5] Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a definition. Emotion
Emotion
is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.[6] In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting primarily on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system (rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, however, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Emotions are complex
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Speech Scroll
In art history, speech scroll (also called a banderole or phylactery)[1] is an illustrative device denoting speech, song, or, in rarer cases, other types of sound. Developed independently on two continents, the device was in use by artists within Mesoamerican cultures from as early as 650 BC until after the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, as well as by European painters during the Medieval
Medieval
and Renaissance
Renaissance
periods. While European speech scrolls were drawn as if they were an actual unfurled scroll or strip of parchment, Mesoamerican speech scrolls are merely scroll-shaped, looking much like a question mark.Contents1 Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica 2 European banderoles 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesPre-Columbian Mesoamerica[edit]A rollout of the San Andrés cylinder seal, showing a bird "speaking" the name "3 Ajaw".Speech scrolls are found throughout Mesoamerica
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Sign (linguistics)
There are many models of the linguistic sign. A classic model is the one by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. According to him, language is made up of signs and every sign has two sides (like a coin or a sheet of paper, both sides of which are inseparable):the signifier (French signifiant), the "shape" of a word, its phonic component, i.e. the sequence of graphemes (letters), e.g., <"c">-<"a">-<"t">, or phonemes (speech sounds), e.g. /kæt/the signified (French signifié), the ideational component, the concept or object that appears in our minds when we hear or read the signifier e.g. a small domesticated feline (The signified is not to be confused with the "referent". The former is a "mental concept", the latter the "actual object" in the world)Saussure's understanding of sign is called the two-side model of sign. Furthermore, Saussure separated speech acts (la parole) from the system of a language (la langue)
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Identity (social Science)
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group). The process of identity can be creative or destructive.[1] A psychological identity relates to self-image (one's mental model of oneself), self-esteem, and individuality
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Wernicke's Area
Wernicke's area
Wernicke's area
(/ˈvɛərnɪkə/ or /ˈvɛərnɪki/; German: [ˈvɛʁnɪkə]), also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area). It is involved in the comprehension or understanding of written and spoken language (in contrast to Broca's area
Broca's area
that is involved in the production of language). It is traditionally thought to be in Brodmann area
Brodmann area
22, which is located in the superior temporal lobe in the dominant cerebral hemisphere (which is the left hemisphere in about 95% of right handed individuals and 60% of left handed individuals). Damage caused to Wernicke's area
Wernicke's area
results in receptive, fluent aphasia. This means that the person with aphasia will be able to fluently connect words, but the phrases will lack meaning
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