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Lambda Phage
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
(E. coli). It was discovered by Esther Lederberg
Esther Lederberg
in 1950 when she noticed that streaks of mixtures of two E. coli strains, one of which treated with ultraviolet light, was "nibbled and plaqued".[1][2] The wild type of this virus has a temperate lifecycle that allows it to either reside within the genome of its host through lysogeny or enter into a lytic phase (during which it kills and lyses the cell to produce offspring); mutant strains are unable to lysogenize cells – instead, they grow and enter the lytic cycle after superinfecting an already lysogenized cell.[3] The phage particle consists of a head (also known as a capsid), a tail, and tail fibers (see image of virus below)
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Repressor
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA. An RNA-binding repressor binds to the mRNA and prevents translation of the mRNA into protein. This blocking of expression is called repression.Contents1 Function 2 Examples2.1 lac operon 2.2 met operon3 See also 4 References 5 External linksFunction[edit] If an inducer, a molecule that initiates the gene expression, is present, then it can interact with the repressor protein and detach it from the operator. RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
then can transcribe the message (expressing the gene)
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Rolling Circle Replication
Rolling circle replication
Rolling circle replication
describes a process of unidirectional nucleic acid replication that can rapidly synthesize multiple copies of circular molecules of DNA
DNA
or RNA, such as plasmids, the genomes of bacteriophages, and the circular RNA
RNA
genome of viroids. Some eukaryotic viruses also replicate their DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
via the rolling circle mechanism. As a simplified version of natural rolling circle replication, an isothermal DNA
DNA
amplification technique, rolling circle amplification (RCA) was developed
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Supercoil
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand
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Promoter (biology)
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA
DNA
that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA
DNA
(towards the 5'
5'
region of the sense strand)
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RNA Polymerase
RNA
RNA
polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA
RNA
polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses. RNAP locally opens the double-stranded DNA
DNA
(usually about four turns of the double helix) so that one strand of the exposed nucleotides can be used as a template for the synthesis of RNA, a process called transcription. A transcription factor and its associated transcription mediator complex must be attached to a DNA
DNA
binding site called a promoter region before RNAP can initiate the DNA
DNA
unwinding at that position. RNAP has intrinsic helicase activity, therefore no separate enzyme is needed to unwind the DNA
DNA
(in contrast to DNA
DNA
polymerase)
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Bacteriostatic
A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise. Depending on their application, bacteriostatic antibiotics, disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives can be distinguished. When bacteriostatic antimicrobials are used, the duration of therapy must be sufficient to allow host defense mechanisms to eradicate the bacteria. Upon removal of the bacteriostat, the bacteria usually start to grow again. This is in contrast to bactericides, which kill bacteria.[1] Bacteriostats are often used in plastics to prevent growth of bacteria on surfaces
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Multiplicity Of Infection
In microbiology, the multiplicity of infection or MOI is the ratio of agents (e.g. phage or more generally virus, bacteria) to infection targets (e.g. cell). For example, when referring to a group of cells inoculated with virus particles, the multiplicity of infection or MOI is the ratio of the number of virus particles to the number of target cells present in a defined space.Contents1 Interpretation1.1 Examples2 See also 3 ReferencesInterpretation[edit] The actual number of viruses or bacteria that will enter any given cell is a statistical process: some cells may absorb more than one infectious agent while others may not absorb any. The probability that a cell will absorb n displaystyle n virus particles or bacteria when inoculated with an MOI of m displaystyle m can be calculated for a given population using a Poisson distribution
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Holin
Holins are a diverse group of small proteins produced by dsDNA bacteriophages in order to trigger and control the degradation of the host's cell wall at the end of the lytic cycle. Holins form pores in the host's cell membrane, allowing lysins to reach and degrade peptidoglycan, a component of bacterial cell walls. Holins have been shown to regulate the timing of lysis with great precision.[1] Over 50 unrelated gene families encode holins, making them the most diverse group of proteins with common function.[2][3] Together with lysins, holins are being studied for their potential use as antibacterial agents.[4] While canonical holins act by forming large pores, pinholins such as the S protein of lambdoid phage 21 act by forming heptameric channels that depolarize the bacterial membrane
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Endolysin
Lysins, also known as endolysins or murein hydrolases, are hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages in order to cleave the host's cell wall during the final stage of the lytic cycle
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Theta Structure
A Theta
Theta
structure is an intermediate structure formed during the replication of a circular DNA
DNA
molecule (prokaryote DNA). Two replication forks can proceed independently around the DNA
DNA
ring and when viewed from above the structure resembles the Greek letter "theta" (θ).[1][2] Originally discovered by John Cairns, it led to the understanding that (in this case) bidirectional DNA
DNA
replication could take place. Proof of the bidirectional nature came from providing replicating cells with a pulse of tritiated thymidine, quenching rapidly and then autoradiographing. Results showed that the radioactive thymidine was incorporated into both forks of the theta structure, not just one, indicating synthesis at both forks in opposite directions around the loop.[3] References[edit]^ Sambamurty, A. V. S. S. (2005). Genetics. Alpha Science Int'l Ltd. p. 780.  ^ B, Arusha
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Concatemer
A concatemer is a long continuous DNA
DNA
molecule that contains multiple copies of the same DNA
DNA
sequence linked in series. These polymeric molecules are usually copies of an entire genome linked end to end and separated by cos sites (a protein binding nucleotide sequence that occurs once in each copy of the genome). Concatemers are frequently the result of rolling circle replication, and may be seen in the late stage of bacterial infection by phages. As an example, if the genes in the phage DNA
DNA
are arranged ABC, then in a concatemer the genes would be ABCABCABCABC and so on. They are further broken by ribozymes.[1] During active infection, some species of viruses have been shown to replicate their genetic material via the formation of concatemers.[2] In the case of human herpesvirus-6, its entire genome is made over and over on a single strand
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DNA Ligase
DNA
DNA
ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 6.5.1.1) that facilitates the joining of DNA
DNA
strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond. It plays a role in repairing single-strand breaks in duplex DNA
DNA
in living organisms, but some forms (such as DNA
DNA
ligase IV) may specifically repair double-strand breaks (i.e. a break in both complementary strands of DNA). Single-strand breaks are repaired by DNA
DNA
ligase using the complementary strand of the double helix as a template,[1] with DNA
DNA
ligase creating the final phosphodiester bond to fully repair the DNA. DNA
DNA
ligase is used in both DNA
DNA
repair and DNA
DNA
replication (see Mammalian ligases)
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Pribnow Box
The Pribnow box (also known as the Pribnow-Schaller box) is the sequence TATAAT of six nucleotides (thymine, adenine, thymine, etc.) that is an essential part of a promoter site on DNA
DNA
for transcription to occur in bacteria.[1][2] It is an idealized or consensus sequence—that is, it shows the most frequently occurring base at each position in a large number of promoters analyzed; individual promoters often vary from the consensus at one or more positions
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Stem-loop
Stem-loop
Stem-loop
intramolecular base pairing is a pattern that can occur in single-stranded DNA
DNA
or, more commonly, in RNA. The structure is also known as a hairpin or hairpin loop. It occurs when two regions of the same strand, usually complementary in nucleotide sequence when read in opposite directions, base-pair to form a double helix that ends in an unpaired loop. The resulting structure is a key building block of many RNA
RNA
secondary structures
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Starvation
Starvation
Starvation
is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life. It is the most extreme form of malnutrition. In humans, prolonged starvation can cause permanent organ damage[1] and eventually, death. The term inanition refers to the symptoms and effects of starvation
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