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Lactobacillus
Lactobacillus
Lactobacillus
is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.[1] They are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group (i.e. they convert sugars to lactic acid). In humans, they constitute a significant component of the microbiota at a number of body sites, such as the digestive system, urinary system, and genital system
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Squamous
Epithelium
Epithelium
(/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/)[1] is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells
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Epithelium
Epithelium
Epithelium
(/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/)[1] is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells
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Sugar
Sugar
Sugar
is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes) and is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
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Microaerophilic
A microaerophile is a microorganism that requires oxygen to survive, but requires environments containing lower levels of oxygen than are present in the atmosphere (i.e. <21% O2; typically 2–10% O2).[1][2] Many microaerophiles are also capnophiles, requiring an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide (e.g. 10% CO2 in the case of Campylobacter
Campylobacter
species).[3]Contents1 Culture 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksCulture[edit] Microaerophiles can be cultivated in candle jars. Candle
Candle
jars are containers into which a lit candle is introduced before sealing the container's airtight lid
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Facultative Anaerobic
A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation or anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent.[1] An obligate aerobe, by contrast, cannot make ATP in the absence of oxygen, and obligate anaerobes die in the presence of oxygen.[2] Some examples of facultative anaerobic bacteria are Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus
Streptococcus
spp.,[3] Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria spp.[4] and Shewanella oneidensis. Certain eukaryotes are also facultative anaerobes, including fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae[5] and many aquatic invertebrates such as Nereid (worm) polychaetes.[6] See also[edit]Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Fermentation Obligate aerobe Obligate anaerobe MicroaerophileReferences[edit]^ Hogg, S. (2005). Essential Microbiology
Microbiology
(1st ed.). Wiley. pp. 99–100
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Gram-positive
Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria
are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain
Gram stain
test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria
take up the crystal violet stain used in the test, and then appear to be purple-coloured when seen through a microscope. This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the rest of the sample, in the decolorization stage of the test. Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
cannot retain the violet stain after the decolorization step; alcohol used in this stage degrades the outer membrane of Gram-negative cells, making the cell wall more porous and incapable of retaining the crystal violet stain
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Human Digestive System
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).[1] In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. Digestion
Digestion
involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. Chewing, in which food is mixed with saliva begins the process of digestion. This produces a bolus which can be swallowed down the esophagus and into the stomach. Here it is mixed with gastric juice until it passes into the duodenum where it is mixed with a number of enzymes produced by the pancreas
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Firmicutes
The Firmicutes
Firmicutes
(/fɜːrˈmɪkjʊtiːz/;[3] Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.[4] A few, however, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas
Selenomonas
and Zymophilus, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative. Scientists once classified the Firmicutes
Firmicutes
to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but have recently defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria. They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-like forms (bacillus). Many Firmicutes
Firmicutes
produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens
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Bacilli
Bacilli
Bacilli
refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria. It includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis (the cause of anthrax). All Bacilli
Bacilli
are gram-positive bacteria.[1]Contents1 Ambiguity 2 Phylogeny2.1 Bacilli
Bacilli
part 2 (continued)3 ReferencesAmbiguity[edit] Several related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Lactobacillus Vitulinus
Lactobacillus vitulinus[3] Kandleria vitulina is a bacterium from the genus Kandleria isolated from calf rumen.[1][2][3][4] References[edit]^ a b Parte, A.C. "Kandleria". www.bacterio.net.  ^ a b " Kandleria vitulina". www.uniprot.org.  ^ a b "Details: DSM-20405". www.dsmz.de.  ^ Salvetti, E.; Felis, G. E.; Dellaglio, F.; Castioni, A.; Torriani, S.; Lawson, P. A. (26 November 2010). "Reclassification of Lactobacillus catenaformis (Eggerth 1935) Moore and Holdeman 1970 and Lactobacillus vitulinus Sharpe et al. 1973 as Eggerthia catenaformis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Kandleria vitulina gen. nov., comb. nov., respectively". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (10): 2520–2524
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Lactobacillaceae
Alloiococcus Lactobacillus Paralactobacillus Pediococcus SharpeaThe Lactobacillaceae
Lactobacillaceae
are a family of lactic acid bacteria.[1] References[edit]^ " Lactobacillaceae
Lactobacillaceae
- Definition and More from Merriam-Webster's Free Medical Dictionary". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 26 July 2010. Taxon identifiersWd: Q578677 EoL: 7772 EPPO: 1LACBF GBIF: 4711 iNaturalist: 123340 ITIS: 438 LPSN: lactobacillaceae.html NCBI: 33958 WoRMS: 567354This Lactobacillales-related article is a stub
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Lactic Acid
Lactic acid
Lactic acid
is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH. In its solid state, it is white and water-soluble. In its liquid state, it is colorless. It is produced both naturally and synthetically. With a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group, lactic acid is classified as an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA). In the form of its conjugate base called lactate, it plays a role in several biochemical processes. In solution, it can ionize a proton from the carboxyl group, producing the lactate ion CH 3CH(OH)CO− 2. Compared to acetic acid, its pKa is 1 unit less, meaning lactic acid deprotonates ten times more easily than acetic acid does. This higher acidity is the consequence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the α-hydroxyl and the carboxylate group. Lactic acid
Lactic acid
is chiral, consisting of two optical isomers
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