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Lacquer
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of very different groups. The term lacquer originates from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word lākshā (लाक्षा) representing the number 100,000, which was used for both the lac insect (because of their enormous number) and the scarlet resinous secretion, rich in shellac, that it produces that was used as wood finish in ancient India
India
and neighbouring areas.[1] Asian lacquerware, which may be called "true lacquer", are objects coated with the treated, dyed and dried sap of Toxicodendron vernicifluum or related trees, applied in several coats to a base that is usually wood
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Guqin
The guqin ([kùtɕʰǐn] ( listen); Chinese: 古琴) is a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument
Chinese musical instrument
of the zither family. It has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favoured by scholars and literati as an instrument of great subtlety and refinement, as highlighted by the quote "a gentleman does not part with his qin or se without good reason,"[1] as well as being associated with the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius. It is sometimes referred to by the Chinese as "the father of Chinese music" or "the instrument of the sages"
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka
is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore
Bangalore
(Bengaluru). Karnataka
Karnataka
is bordered by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west, Goa
Goa
to the northwest, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the north, Telangana
Telangana
to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
to the east, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to the southeast, and Kerala
Kerala
to the south
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Whistle
A whistle is an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas, most commonly air. It may be mouth-operated, or powered by air pressure, steam, or other means. Whistles vary in size from a small slide whistle or nose flute type to a large multi-piped church organ. Whistles have been around since early humans first carved out a gourd or branch and found they could make sound with it. In prehistoric Egypt, small shells were used as whistles.[1] Many present day wind instruments are inheritors of these early whistles. With the rise of more mechanical power, other forms of whistles have been developed. One characteristic of a whistle is that it creates a pure, or nearly pure, tone. The conversion of flow energy to sound comes from an interaction between a solid material and a fluid stream
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Korea
Korea
Korea
(/kəˈriːə/) is a historical region in East Asia; since 1945, it has been divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea
Korea
(officially the "Republic of Korea"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea
Korea
is bordered by China
China
to the northwest and Russia
Russia
to the northeast. It is separated from Japan
Japan
to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan
Japan
(East Sea). Korea
Korea
emerged as a singular political entity in 676 AD, after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Unified Silla
Unified Silla
to the south and Balhae
Balhae
to the north
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Shang Dynasty
The Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(/ʃɑːŋ/;[2] Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (/jɪn/; 殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
dated them from c
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Urushiol-induced Contact Dermatitis
Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis
Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis
(also called Toxicodendron dermatitis and Rhus dermatitis) is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil urushiol, which is contained in various plants, most notably those of the Toxicodendron
Toxicodendron
genus: the Chinese lacquer tree, poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac. The name is derived from the Japanese word for the sap of the Chinese lacquer tree, urushi. Other plants in the sumac family (including mango, pistachio, the Burmese lacquer tree, the India marking nut tree, and the shell of the cashew) also contain urushiol,[1][non-primary source needed] as do unrelated plants such as Ginkgo biloba. As is the case with all contact dermatitis, urushiol-induced rashes are a Type IV hypersensitivity reaction, also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity
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Evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation
is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase.[1] The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will "escape" and enter the surrounding air as a gas.[2] When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.[3] On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is the equal to its condensation
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Polymerization
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.[2][3][4] There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them.Contents1 Introduction 2 Step-growth 3 Chain-growth3.1 Physical polymer reaction engineering 3.2 Photopolymerization4 See also 5 ReferencesIntroduction[edit]Homopolymers A + A + A + A . . . → A A A A . . . displaystyle A+A+A+A...rightarrow AAAA... Copolymers A + B + A + B . . . → A B A B . . . displaystyle A+B+A+B...rightarrow ABAB..
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Oxidation
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Latin
was the form of Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity[dubious – discuss] and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin
Latin
should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin
Latin
ends and medieval Latin
Latin
begins
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